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Its value depends on the reaction and the material of the electrode. Both oxidation and reduction reactions occur on an electrode even if one direction is dominant. At equilibrium, when both rates are equal, electrons are produced and consumed at the same rate [2]. 3 Term b is called the Tafel slope. The constant b is higher for an electrochemical reaction which is slow. The constant i 0 is higher if the reaction is faster and the smaller i 0 the greater voltage loss in activation loss. Raising the temperature increases the overvoltage.

The departure from the baseline becomes noticeable as the current density increases [1]. 4. Effect of Limiting Current Density Limiting current density only has an effect at very high current densities approaching the limiting current density. At low current densities there is almost no effect, that is, the three polarization curves for three different limiting currents fall on top of each other [1]. 5. 24). b) An increase in exchange current density due to increased concentration of reactant gases in the electrode(s).

12) If the system is reversible then this electrical work done will be equal to the Gibbs free energy released, ∆G . 23 Volts. This equation gives the reversible open circuit voltage of the hydrogen fuel cell. 19) Where G 0 is Gibbs free energy at standard temperature and pressure (25 0C and 1 atm), and P0 is the reference or standard pressure (1 atm). 22) This is known as the Nernst equation, where P is the partial pressure of the reactant or product species and P0 is the reference pressure. 8).

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