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By Robert R. Hoffman, Gary Klein, Beth Crandall

Tips to acquire info approximately cognitive strategies and occasions, tips on how to examine CTA findings, and the way to speak them successfully: a guide for managers, running shoes, structures analysts, industry researchers, future health pros, and others.

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Additional resources for Working Minds: A Practitioner's Guide to Cognitive Task Analysis

Sample text

Even for an event located explicitly in the past (both in the verb form ‘have believed’ and in the grounding ‘in the last years of the nineteenth century’), these forms nevertheless indicate an element of futurity. Langacker (2008a: 306–7) draws out the nature of potential and projected reality which underlies these expressions, and they are particularly iconic and effective as part of this opening to a speculative ‘scientific romance’ (Wells’ own term for the genre). It is clear that the readerly impressions of foreboding and anxiety, as well as the capacity of this opening passage for drawing the reader into the science fictional world, have been effected by a skilful combination of deflected agency, balanced action chain structure, and rich forms of modalisation.

Then, we will illustrate how the analysis of the multimodal construction of viewing arrangements in the text enables us to understand and model Bechdel’s complex, self-reflective and ambiguous narrative perspectivisation on a cognitive level. Lastly, in a brief outlook we will argue that these kinds of analyses should be supplemented by, and ideally be integrated with, Langacker’s current discourse space model, which can model the ongoing flow of discourse and changing construals in complex, multi- and monomodal narratives.

Langacker’s ‘use in CG of semipictorial diagrams’ (Langacker 2008a: 11) does not mean his theory is entirely visual, as he warns (2008a: 12). Yet, he concedes that it may be ‘hard to resist the visual metaphor, where content is likened to a scene and construal to a particular way of viewing it’ (2008a: 55). While ‘CG does not claim that all meanings are based on space or visual perception, […] the visual metaphor does suggest a way to classify the many facets of construal’ (­ Langacker 2008a: 55).

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