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By Gøsta Esping-Andersen

Prime students within the box research the hugely topical factor of the longer term the welfare kingdom in Europe. They argue that welfare states have to regulate and consider which type of welfare structure will additional Europe's said objective of utmost social inclusion and justice. This quantity concentrates on 4 precept social domain names; the elderly and transition to retirement; the welfare concerns regarding profound adjustments in operating lifestyles; the dangers and wishes that come up in families and, particularly, in baby households; and the demanding situations of constructing gender equality.

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Extra resources for Why We Need a New Welfare State

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To be sure, we have a massive literature on the moral hazards and negative incentive effects that government welfare provision may provoke. Unfortunately, we know far less about the second-order effects of familial welfare responsibilities. But we are becoming increasingly aware that traditional caring obligations contradict women's employment abilities. There is also evidence that the familial solution to youth unemployment typical of Southern Europe may be problematic in so far as it delays independence, job insertion, and family formation.

Indeed, herein lies an obstacle to possibly any reform. 11 And as recent reform 11 See Svallfors and Taylor-Gooby (2001) for a recent comparative overview. 8 GøSTA ESPING-ANDERSEN efforts (especially in pensions) demonstrate, masses of citizens will take to the streets and force parties from office if they seem to change the rules of the game. We must be certain that any design for a new social contract conforms to prevailing normative definitions of justice. This means specifying the bases of rights and reciprocity, and delineating the claims that citizens can justly make on society.

The Dutch labour market success story is based on a number of interrelated policies including, first of all, protracted wage moderation and a huge growth of part-time and temporary employment. This was combined with a fairly effective curtailment of prolonged welfare dependency but not with any significant erosion of social benefits. The result has been an impressive rise in female employment and in service jobs more generally. From National Regimes Towards a European Model? As national interdependencies strengthen and as European integration moves ahead, the advocacy for a new welfare architecture inevitably becomes more global and pan-national.

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