By M. Ramesh
This can be the one in-depth examine of social rules in Southeast Asia. It compares social safety, healthiness, and schooling rules in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. After describing the rules and assessing their adequacy and fairness implications, it examines the forces that experience formed them. It concludes that social courses (except for fundamental schooling) within the zone are either insufficient and inequitable. It argues that the cause of this can be political instead of cultural or socio-economic.
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Extra info for Welfare Capitalism in Southeast Asia: Social Security, Health and Education Policies
3). The decline of agriculture was accompanied by increase in the industry and service sectors’ shares. The decline in the size of and employment in agriculture, and the corresponding increase in the shares of industry and services, was accompanied by deep social transformation related to wage employment and urbanisation. 4 shows. 75 Based on World Development Indicators 1998. 4 Urban Population as a Percentage of Total Population Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Singapore Thailand Source: 1960 1992 2000 (Projected) 15 25 30 98 13 30 45 44 100 23 40 51 49 100 29 United Nations (1994).
This decline was for the most part a function of an increase in their national income, as increasing volumes of national wealth flowed out to the low-income families to a greater or lesser extent. Calculating poverty is a difficult task and there is no consensus on how it should be carried out. The World Bank arbitrarily uses an income of US$1 per day at 1985 prices as its poverty-line. 5. 0 Ahuja et al. (1997). 5 shows a steep decline in poverty since 1975 for every country in the region, with Indonesia experiencing the largest decrease and the Philippines the smallest.
Indeed civil servants and the military account for more than half of the population covered by social security programmes in Indonesia and they consume much of the total public spending on the item (Vittas, 1991: 34). Private Sector The private sector workers in Indonesia are looked after through a compulsory provident fund, JAMSOSTEK ( Jaminan Sosial Tenaga Kerja), and voluntary employer-sponsored pension. 40 Welfare Capitalism in Southeast Asia JAMSOSTEK JAMSOSTEK, which was established in 1992, is the main income maintenance programme for workers in the private sector.
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