Download Water Fluoridation Principles & Practices by American Water Works Association PDF

By American Water Works Association

Fluoridation is the addition of the chemical fluoride in consuming water to minimize teeth decay. considering fluoridation therapy grew to become universal perform over 50 years in the past, the teeth decay has been lowered forty to sixty five percent.

This handbook presents information and suggestions at the layout, operation, and upkeep of fluoridation structures in water therapy. insurance comprises human future health results of fluoride, calculating dosage, feed structures, deploy, operation, upkeep, and defluoridation

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Additional resources for Water Fluoridation Principles & Practices

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The selection of one of the types of volumetric feeders involves several factors, such as size, cost, accuracy, and personal preference. Volumetric dry feeders are available in several types that differ in terms of the method of measuring and delivering the dry chemical. Figures 3-5 and 3-6 show two types of volumetric dry feeders. Various types include the following: • Rotating roller • Rotating disc • Rotation or reciprocating screw • Star wheel • Moving belt • Vibratory pan • Oscillating hopper • Combinations of these types The two general types of gravimetric dry feeders are those based on loss in weight of the feeder hopper and those based on the weight of material on a section of moving belt (Figures 3-7 and 3-8).

Injecting solution into the top of a pipe can cause air to collect and then work its way into the injection check valve or the discharge line and cause air binding. Locating the injection fitting in the lower portion of the pipe also prevents the fluoride chemical (particularly fluorosilicic acid) from draining out of the injection tube (and possibly the discharge line) and settling to the bottom of the pipe, causing corrosion. The injection point should be at a higher elevation or a higher pressure than the elevation of the liquid level in the feed drum to reduce the possibility of siphonage and overfeeding.

Ordinarily, solution-feeding devices, such as centrifugal pumps, pot feeders, or a head tank and orifice, are not used for fluoridation because of their relative inaccuracy. Selection criteria. The criteria used in selecting a feeder are • capacity • corrosion resistance • pressure capability • accuracy • durability Generally feeders perform most accurately near the midrange of both stroke length and stroke frequency and should be selected accordingly. At the extremely low feed rates required by small installations, the diaphragm feeders are preferable to the piston types.

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