By E. Kalaycioglu
A prime Turkish political scientist complements figuring out of the interactions of liberal democracy with longstanding cultural cleavages alongside secular-religious traces, ethnicity, and social classification. This chronological narrative makes a speciality of how the method of urbanization and industrialization has ended in social mobilization and inhabitants movements.
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Additional resources for Turkish Dynamics: Bridge Across Troubled Lands
Neither the modernists, nor the traditionalists seemed to vie for a nationalist solution. 26 The Rise of Turkish Nationalism The Turkish subjects of the Ottoman Empire had to cope with the rising tide of Balkan nationalisms. Turkish peasants and townsfolk living in the Balkans F rom Coll apse to L iberation 21 constituted a large minority in the Balkans. 27 They learnt about nationalism from their Greek and Slav Christian neighbors the hard way. Under the increasing influence of panSlav or indigenous religio-ethnic nationalisms the Christian populations of the Balkan lands started to show increasing signs of hostility, and intolerance toward their Turkish neighbors, and other minorities, such as the Jews.
However, Gökalp built 26 T urkish Dynamics: B ridge A cross T roubled Lands upon his original argument that culture is national and civilization is international. For him civilization was a consciously created artifact of the human reason, whereas “. . The elements that constitute a culture, on the other hand, are not creations of conscious individual actions . . ”60 He suggested the example of language. Individuals may propose new terms or even grammatical rules, yet they may or may not be accepted by the people.
Population exchanges between Turkey and Greece continued until the 1930s, and deportations of “Muslims as Turks” from the Balkans occurred in the 1950s from Bulgaria and Yugoslavia to Turkey, from Bulgaria to Turkey in the 1980s. 96 The residence permits of Greek citizens residing in Turkey at the restart of the Cyprus conflict were cancelled in the 1960s, and thus 9,000 Orthodox Greeks left over in Turkey and mainly in Istanbul from the Ottoman Empire were deported in 1964. In a sense, Balkan nationalisms, of which Turkish nationalism is a sort, continued to threaten and undermine the relations among the Balkan nations, Turkey included, throughout the twentieth century.
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