Download Tin in antiquity : its mining and trade throughout the by R.D. Penhallurick PDF

By R.D. Penhallurick

Tin in Antiquity is the 1st entire background of the early metallurgy of tin, a mine of data in this infrequent, hugely prized steel so important to the constructing civilization of the Bronze Age. The origins of tin have continuously been a secret, however the writer has unearthed archaeological facts from around the world to track the tinfields used earlier than the invention of eu deposits. he's taking us on a desirable voyage of discovery in the course of the old international, delving into mythology, and enlivening his scholarly textual content with quotations from the Classics and funny anecdotes. As his identify indicates, Roger Penhallurick's roots are deep in Cornwall - previously the world's biggest tin manufacturer, and nonetheless the best in Europe. So it truly is becoming that the Cornish part contains virtually part the booklet, for the 1st time gathering jointly all of the facts for tin streaming among 2000 BC and advert one thousand. All surviving artifacts recovered from the tin workings are illustrated and installed their archaeological context. The e-book is lavishly illustrated all through, together with many infrequent outdated pictures, and has an entire bibliography of the wealth of resources that experience contributed to this paintings

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Extra info for Tin in antiquity : its mining and trade throughout the ancient world with particular reference to Cornwall

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Such bronzes are known from Mersin (Yumuk Tepe) on the south-east coast of Turkey. A metal stamp from level XVI (c. 4300 Be), and pins from levels XIV and XIII, contained 2-6, 2'1, and 1·30/0 tin respectively. V Recent analyses of some Anatolian artifacts 13 yielded a maximum of 0-8% tin and an average of less than 0'2% in objects of the mid-3rd millennium BC (early bronze age II). Only in the closing years of the early bronze age were there dagger blades wi th 6·5 and 7·1 % tin at Yerten (modern Korkuteli) in south-west Turkey.

All that can be learned is that tin was obtainable 'on the south-western borders of the High Altai, where the copper also was probably worked'. 28 Among the highly valued items found at Pazyrik were eight head-dresses belonging to eight splendid Fergana horses, animals known to have been prized even in China. Those at Pazyrik or their ancestors, originated in the F ergana basin nearly a thousand miles to the west. Apart from horses, knowledge of tin probably also spread to Pazyrik and the upper Irtysh tin-fields from Fergana sometime in the 2nd millennium BC.

Their spears, harpoons, and other artifacts, all of copper, are found with pottery which itself shows no influence from the Indus civilization. However, it overlaps it in time and continues in use after the waning of the Indus cities c. l ' There is nothing recoverable here, nor is it likely to have been known before its discovery in September 1903. Suggestions that the Indus civilization may have derived its tin from an Indian source can thus be ruled out. Tin bronzes from Gujarat are at the southernmost limit of Indus influence.

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