By Jacqueline Guéron, Jacqueline Lecarme
Time and Modality is a different paintings of reference; not just does it unite reports which discover the syntax and semantics of demanding or modality however it is the 1st ebook of its variety to include the interplay of annoying and modality inside of a coherent generative version. a variety of themes are coated during this quantity: between them are the counterfactual makes use of of conditionals, modals, and previous annoying; the irrealis use of perfective element; a unique English subjunctive; the interplay of stressful project and the definition of an occasion; the modal verb as a causative verb; the interplay of modality, demanding, and aktionsart; the distinction among deontic and epistemic modal with admire to demanding interpretation; the syntax of epistemic modals; the long-awaited definition of regular and recurring sentence; and the creation of intensionality in copular clauses. even supposing each article offers with English to some extent, chapters evaluate the syntax and semantics of demanding and modality in Spanish vs English. The authors additionally examine Slavic, Germanic, Afro-Asiatic, Oriental, Amerindian Languages and Hungarian.
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Extra info for Time and Modality (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory)
We have reduced possibilities by ﬁrst deﬁning something vaguely approaching an unstructured (or “chaotic”) situation and then restricting the space of possibilities to something more limited. Note that this has the property of intensionality as discussed above, because if we know the set of generalizations then we know what moves we WOULD be able to make given any state of the board, no matter the number of previous moves, without limit. For the time being, let’s attempt to apply the kind of thinking we just went through for chess to the matter of ordinary generics.
I have nothing to add to the mass of work in psychology, philosophy, mathematics, statistics, computer science, theories of encryption and code-breaking procedures, and so forth, regarding what constitutes a “pattern”. My goal here is to take some of those insights and apply them to the formulation of a semantics. The key ingredient I return to is that patterns are fundamentally intensional. Wittgenstein noted that a sequence like 1,3,5,7,9,. . is itself consistent with an unlimited number of possible patterns.
4) a. b. Mosquitos carry the West Nile virus. Mosquitos do not carry the West Nile virus. Again, this exceedingly strong interpretation is not found in English alone. Reports in the descriptive grammars of a variety of languages, in instances where the facts are noted, agree on this very “strong” interpretation of negated generics and habituals. To summarize, the issues that I am taking as central in the discussion of the semantics of generics and habituals concern the treatment of exceptionality, the intensional properties of the interpretations, the unity of meaning, and the strength of negated generics.
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