By Zenonas Rudzikas

Spectra are primary features of atoms and ions, and are the most resource of data on their constitution and homes. This monograph offers an entire advisor to the speculation of contemporary spectroscopy of atoms. The publication describes the modern country of the speculation of many-electron atoms and ions, the peculiarities in their constitution and spectra, the procedures in their interplay with radiation, and a few of the functions of atomic spectroscopy. It incorporates a huge variety of new effects, that have been frequently released in Russian and are as a result nearly unknown to Western scientists. A graduate point textual content and learn reference, this booklet is aimed essentially at atomic physicists and actual chemists, yet may also be of price to physicists and chemists in different parts who use spectroscopy of their paintings.

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**Example text**

In the gas case the Boltzmann equation provided by itself the equilibrium distribution, and the method of complexions gave hardly more than "an illustration of the mathematical meaning of the quantity H" of the H -theorem, as Boltzmann wrote in his Gastheorie . [80] This is why Planck decided to turn to the combinatorial method. However, he consistently rejected the probabilistic context of Boltzmann's original considerations. One could well call a certain mathematical function of the state of a system a "probability" without having to consider the increase of this function in time as a matter of probability.

Yet, F2 is not zero, because the gradient of Be contributes a term of the same order (in ) as F1 . This term is Because of the rotational invariance of d S × E, only the part contributes to this integral. Taking into account Maxwell's equation an elementary calculation then yields Equating the two expressions (44) and (45) of F now gives of , ― 35 ― or In the latter equation one can consider the time to be the only variable since, according to (39), f (t — r/c ) can be replaced with f (t ) whenever .

Planck nevertheless studied Maxwell's kinetic theory, if only as a part of his duties as editor of Kirchhoff's lectures on thermodynamics, which included this topic. The resulting book, published in 1894, contained an unfortunate mistake in the proof of Maxwell's distribution law, which stirred a short but instructive polemic with Boltzmann. Planck proposed a better proof and in the process became acquainted with, though not convinced by, Boltzmann's idea of molecular chaos. On this occasion he might also have felt the need of an alternative microscopic foundation of thermodynamics.