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By M. Sukru Hanioglu

In 1908, the revolution of the younger Turks deposed the dictatorship of Sultan Abdulhamid II and tested a constitutional regime that turned the foremost ruling strength within the Ottoman empire. however the seeds of this revolution went again a lot farther: to 1889, whilst the key younger Turk association the Committee of Union and growth used to be shaped. M. Sukru Hanioglu's landmark paintings is the tale of the facility struggles in the CUP and its effect on twentieth-century Turkish politics and tradition. immediately an in-depth heritage of an ideological move and a examine of the diplomatic relationships among the Ottoman Empire and the so-called nice powers of Europe on the flip of the century, it analyzes the effect of eu political inspiration at the CUP conspirators, and lines their impression on generations of Turkish highbrow and political lifestyles.

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For this reason, it was necessary to teach the basics [of our program] to a group that had influence over the population. But we also had to win more adherents. With this in mind, Scalieri established under the auspices of the French Obedience the Envar-i §arkiye [The Lights of the East]; the lodge became famous by virtue of its membership, which included several distinguished politicians and high-ranking religious officials. 6 The CUP, Other Opposition Forces, the Sultan 35 Other sources indirectly attest to the veracity of this account.

208 Other than this lengthy controversy with Ahmed Midhat, there were few articles and works 28 The Toung Turks in Opposition in which the Young Turks engaged in polemical discussion on the specifics of the sultan's regime from a political perspective. Nevertheless, the real concern of the Young Turks was not whether there was a sharp distinction between an absolutist regime and a benevolent autocracy but that a loyalist administration had emerged and replaced the rational Tanzimat bureaucracy.

Except for articles written for propaganda purposes,119 the Young Turks gave no credit to efforts to reconcile western civilization and science with Islam and traditional values. Even the ideas of Namik Kemal seemed useless to them, and their reaction echoed the denigration of Thomas Moore's Utopia in England by the generation succeeding him—the ideas might be well put and interesting, but they were devoid of any practical value. Two of the four founders of the CUP at the Royal Medical Academy, Abdullah Cevdet and Ibrahim Temo, wrote for popular scientific journals.

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