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By Asa Lundgren

Asa Lundgren explores Turkish coverage in the direction of northern Iraq from the start of the Nineteen Nineties to the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 and attracts very important conclusions concerning the relation among nation-building and international coverage. the writer argues that there's a the most important interaction among the safety of kingdom borders, overseas coverage perform and the development of nationwide id. Turkey's coverage in the direction of northern Iraq over the past decade could be defined as a balancing act the place the integrity of the Turkish-Iraqi border used to be firmly defended through Ankara, whereas while it was once constantly violated via Turkish army incursions opposed to a perceived Kurdish probability and by way of the everlasting army presence of the Turkish military on Iraqi territory. The paradoxes of Turkey's coverage can merely be understood within the gentle of an ongoing fight over the definition of Turkish nationwide identification. The author's hugely unique proposition is that Ankara's coverage competition to all makes an attempt to wreck up Iraq alongside ethnic traces was once a reflect photo of a priority with the solidarity of the Turkish country nation.

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DEFINING AND DEFENDING TIIE TURKISHNATION 31 National identity, supposedly, stops at the borders and the Turhsh state coincides with the Turkish nation. Ziya Gokalp, one of the ideologists of the nation-bculdmg project, wrote in The PrinGiple ofTurkism in 1920 that nationality had nothing to do with race, ethnicity or consanguinity. It should be noted, however, that Gokalp I d not define an ethnic group as a group sharing the same culture. ) then Gokalp's definition of a nation would be ethnic rather than civic.

The challenge was how to define a Turkish nation and how to gain the support and loyalty of the population living withm the borders. The political elite was faced with the task of mouldmg the citizens into a Turlush nation and d e h t i n g them from people living on the other sides of the borders and who were, or were to become, part of other nation-bddmg projects. X ~ ~nationalism had to be defined that could constitute a foundation for the state. The territory was inhabited by many different ethnic groups.

In 1934, the Resettlement Law had been adopted by the Parliament. T h s law aimed at relocating people accorQng to their ethnicity and with the purpose of builQng a homogeneous nation. The country was Qvided into three zones and Dersim was placed in the h d zone, whch comprised regions that were to be evacuated. The Resettlement Law was followed in 1935 by the Tunceli law (Dersim was officially renamed Tunceli in 1935). The Tunceli law gave extraordmary powers to the governor-general to deport and arrest people.

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