Download The Subthalamic Nucleus: Part I: Development, Cytology, by Enrico Marani, Tjitske Heida, Egbert A. J. F. Lakke, Kamen PDF

By Enrico Marani, Tjitske Heida, Egbert A. J. F. Lakke, Kamen G. Usunoff

This monograph at the subthalamic nucleus accentuates partly I the distance among experimental animal and human details bearing on subthalamic improvement, cytology, topography and connections. the sunshine and electron microscopical cytology issues the open nucleus proposal and the neuronal varieties found in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses: enzymes, NO, GFAP, calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, GABA, serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic telephone twine is reviewed. The topography issues the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections also are given from a ancient viewpoint. fresh tracer reports at the rat nigro-subthalamic connection published contralateral projections.

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Additional resources for The Subthalamic Nucleus: Part I: Development, Cytology, Topography and Connections (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology)

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The pictures of Fig. 5 show the complete extent of the STN. The Nissl section allows a tripartition of the STN into an oblique medial part with a high concentration of cells, an oblique middle part with a low concentration of cells and an oblique lateral part with a high concentration of cells. The medial half of the STN is lying above the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, while its medial point is just above the pars compacta. The Baboon Subthalamic Area: Nuclei and Tracts 35 Fig. 1 Transverse Woelcke and Nissl sections of the baboon’s mesencephalon.

The regio subthalamica produces in its basal ventricular matrix the corpus Luysii and the suprapeduncular complex. 4. The matrix is localized just above the mammillary recess also called the supramammillary recess. 5. The corpus subthalamicum Luysii takes a more lateral direction or tangential migration than the suprapeduncular complex does. 6. The border between the subthalamic area and prerubral area is difficult to discern. In rat, Marchand (1987) used autoradiography and determined the germinative zone just caudally and dorsal of the mammillary recessus as the origin of the STN.

1995) found, using hkor mRNA, that the human STN 20 Cytology of the Subthalamic Nucleus contains a κ-like opioid receptor. Both µ- and δ-opioid receptors are expressed pre- and postsynaptically in the rat STN (Delfs et al. 1994; Florin et al. 2000). Opioids in the rat STN exert their inhibitory action on GABA release via both µ- and δ-receptors. The opioid receptors, in general, hyperpolarize neurons by increasing membrane potassium conductance and inhibit synaptic transmission by reducing voltage-dependent calcium currents (North 1993; see also Part II of The Subthalamic Nucleus).

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