By Gin S. Malhi, Marc Masson, Frank Bellivier
This booklet offers a transparent and finished consultant to the medical prescription of lithium that pulls upon evidence-based wisdom of its mechanisms of motion. The ebook is split into components, at the technological know-how of lithium and the perform of lithium treatment. the previous covers points akin to the homes of the lithium ion, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, influence on neurotransmission, and gene expression modulation. The part on perform comprises dialogue of variability in line with lithium, use of lithium within the remedy of bipolar problems, its worth in suicide prevention, management while pregnant and within the pediatric age crew, and uncomfortable side effects. Lithium is arguably the one real temper stabilizer, and its multifaceted results throughout many medical domain names have given upward thrust to a resurgence of curiosity in recent times, fuelled through either researchers and clinicians. however, its use continues to be restricted through exaggerated issues approximately strength side-effects. actually, lithium is an easy molecule that's fairly straight forward to manage and video display and has in all likelihood profound merits at a fragment of the price of modern brokers. This e-book dispels the numerous myths and matters that encompass its use and may be of curiosity for clinicians and researchers world wide, and people who are recipients of lithium therapy.
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Extra info for The Science and Practice of Lithium Therapy
E. immediate- or sustained-release forms, within the intestine. Following oral ingestion, fast and effective absorption is observed within 1–6 h for the immediate-release form (later for the sustained-release form) through the upper gastrointestinal tract (Malhi and Tanious 2011). A complete dissociation of lithium salts occurs after their oral absorption, giving rise to lithium as a single cation in the circulating blood. Chloride and sulphate salts are rapidly and almost completely absorbed, while the less water-soluble carbonate salt is absorbed more slowly (Lehmann 1997).
1 Introduction The benefits of lithium in the treatment of ‘psychotic excitement’ emerged at the beginning of the 1950s (Cade 1949). Today, lithium salts (carbonate or citrate) are still the first-choice medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (Malhi et al. 2015). The clinical use of lithium remains tricky due to its extremely narrow therapeutic range: the concentrations required for therapeutic effects are close to concentrations that can cause toxicity. Indeed, a relatively minor increase in lithium serum concentrations may induce severe adverse effects, while their decrease may precipitate the worsening of psychiatric symptoms.
Carbonate) is less energy demanding, as it relies on the use of solar evaporation ponds. Usually, salty water is first pumped out of the lakes and then concentrated using solar energy into Li-Cl brine prior to being subsequently treated with a soda (sodium carbonate, Na2CO3) solution to precipitate lithium carbonate (Li2CO3). However, the quality of brine/deposit is generally bound to its magnesium content (magnesium/lithium ratio), which, if high, necessitates additional purification costs. As the industrial utilizations of lithium are relatively recent, its production is still in its infancy, and more deposits or lithium-bearing minerals are likely to be discovered in the future.
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