By John Stratton Hawley
No Hindu god is towards the soul of poetry than Krishna, and in North India no poet ever sang of Krishna extra famously than S=urdD=as-or S=ur, for brief. He lived within the 16th century and have become so influential that for hundreds of years in a while aspiring Krishna poets signed their compositions orally along with his name.This e-book takes us again to the resource, providing a range of S=urd=as's poems that have been recognized and sung within the 16th century itself. right here we've poems of battle, poems to the good rivers, poems of wit and rage, poems the place the poet spills out his disappointments. so much of all, notwithstanding, we've the reminiscence of love-poems that undertake the voices of the ladies of Krishna's natal Braj kingdom and evoke the ability of being pulled into his impossible to resist orbit. Following the lead of a number of outdated manuscripts, Jack Hawley arranges those poems in this type of approach that they let us know Krishna's existence tale from delivery to complete maturity.These lyrics from S=ur's Ocean (the S=urs=agar) have been composed within the very tongue Hindus think Krishna himself should have spoken: Brajbh=as=a, the language of Braj, numerous Hindi. Hawley prepares the way in which for his verse translations with an advent that explains what we all know of S=urd=as and describes the fundamental constitution of his poems. For readers new to Krishna's international or to the subtleties of a poet like S=urd=as, Hawley additionally offers a considerable set of analytical notes. "S=ur is the sun," as a well-known announcing has it, and we suppose the heat of his gentle in those pages.
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Additional info for The Memory of Love: Surdas Sings to Krishna
32–39. aya, chapter 1, in the Javāharlāl Caturvedı¯ edition, pp. 7–11; in the Ved Prakāś edition, p. 56. ā verse called Hazārā (Hajārā). The name Brahma refers to Bı¯rbal, Akbar’s courtier. Other poets in the list are sometimes given shorthand designations; an explanatory key is provided by Javāharlāl Caturvedı¯ on pp. 9–10. The term translated as “poetry” in the ﬁnal line is kāvya. ā a poetic genealogy that would make it amenable to the aesthetic categories that had been developed to describe the virtues of elevated Sanskrit verse (kāvya).
The exact sequence of mātrās is not governed by formal regulation. 41 (6) Each verse contains a caesura (yati), which falls either exactly halfway through the line or, more frequently, at a slightly later point. In the sār meter, for example, it divides the verse into sixteen and twelve instants. ek is normally equivalent in length to the portion of a verse that precedes the caesura (in sār, sixteen instants). itā) or seal (chāp) appears in the poem itself, usually in the ﬁnal verse but sometimes in the penultimate verse instead.
In the sixteenth century, the term Hari was also frequently used as a designation for God in an even more general sense—the sort of God who loved to help those who loved him, and had designed the world as a theater in which that sort of action could be performed. So Hari can mean many things, but when Nābhādās speaks of Hari in connection with Sūrdās, he is clearly thinking of Krishna, the deity whose trademark is his “playful acts,” his līlās. For Nābhādās, as for Rāmcandra Śukla and countless others, Sūrdās is ﬁrst and foremost a poet of Krishna.
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