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By Marian Kent

The disappearance of the Ottoman Empire have been foretold because the finish of the eighteenth century. yet, because it used to be now not eventually abolished by means of the Turkish Grand nationwide meeting within the newly verified capital in Ankara till 1924, actually it survived its conventional enemies, the Russian and Habsburg Empires, and its disastrous best friend, the German Empire, by means of six or seven years. additionally, throughout the First international battle, at Gallipoli and Kut, the Ottoman Empire used to be in a position to inflict a few remarkable defeats on its former best friend, after 1914 its so much formidable and unsafe enemy, the British Empire.The mysterious mixture of weak spot and energy which characterized the Ottoman Empire in its final a long time is the topic of the nice Powers and the top of the Ottoman Empire. It comprises seven chapters. the 1st, via Feroz Ahmad, writer of the one account in English of the younger Turks in energy, bargains with features of the interior coverage of the Empire. within the different chapters F. R. Bridge, R. J. B. Bosworth, Alan Bodger, Ulrich Trumpener, L. Bruce Fulton and Marian Kent describe, respectively, the kinfolk of the Habsburg Monarchy, Italy, Russia, Germany, France and nice Britain with the Ottoman Empire after 1900. every one bankruptcy supplies a great account of the topic, in response to archival in addition to published assets, and there's an intensive and updated bibliography. the good Powers and the tip of the Ottoman Empire, is for this reason, vital for a person attracted to the heritage.

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151, 157, and Bridge, p. 40. 40 See Bosworth below, pp. 60–3. 41 Memorandum from Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs to Foreign Office, 31 Oct. 1911, FO 371/1263/48554. This time it was an official proposal. 42 Quoted in Ahmad, Young Turks, p. 319, n. 31. , pp. 319–20. ), British Foreign Policy under Sir Edward Grey (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 154– 6, and below pp. 183, 185. ’ Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story (New York, 1918), p. 99. 45 See Ahmad, Young Turks, p. 321, n. 31. Meanwhile in Cairo, in March 1914, Kâmil Pasha saw Viscount Kitchener.

1. 34 There is a useful article on the boycott and its implications for the Turkish economy. See Erdal Yavuz, ‘1908 Boykotu’, in Orta Do u Teknik Üniversitesi, Geli me Dergisi: 1908 Özel Sayisi (türkiye iktisat tarihi üzerine ara timalan) (Ankara, 1978), pp. 163–81. See also Bridge, below, pp. 35, 38. 35 As in no. 31, p. 309. The Unionist mission had no governmental authority, and Grand Vezir Kâmil Pasha complained to Lowther that ‘they spoke as if they represented the Ottoman Government’. See dispatch no.

But the end effect, when it did not actually weaken the Ottoman Empire, was to create an insuperable obstacle to the establishment of really close relations between Vienna and Constantinople. The final responsibility for Austro-Hungarian foreign policy lay with the emperor. Although, after the annexation of Bosnia in 1908, Franz Joseph had no territorial ambitions at the expense of the Ottoman Empire, he felt little sympathy for the Turks. En route for the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 he had been entertained by Abdul Aziz; but, in glaring contrast to Wilhelm II, he never met any subsequent sultan.

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