Download The End of Modern History in the Middle East by Bernard Lewis PDF

By Bernard Lewis

With the finishing of world strategic disagreement among superpowers, these within the heart East needs to comply with a brand new fact: to just accept ultimate accountability for his or her personal affairs, to make and realize their error, and to simply accept the implications. In

The finish of recent heritage within the heart East

, Bernard Lewis discusses the way forward for the sector during this new, postimperialist period. for every and each kingdom and for the sector as an entire, he explains, there's a variety of different futures: at one finish, cooperation and development; on the different, a vicious circle of poverty and ignorance.

The writer examines intimately the problems most crucial to the region’s destiny. He describes oil because the present, most crucial export to the skin international from the center East yet warns that know-how will ultimately make it out of date, leaving those that rely completely on oil sales with a bleak destiny. the 3 components that may so much aid remodel the center East, in keeping with Lewis, are Turkey, Israel, and women. He additionally argues that there's adequate within the conventional tradition of Islam at the one hand and the fashionable event of the Muslim peoples at the different to supply the root for an enhance towards freedom within the precise experience of that observe and to accomplish the social, cultural, and medical alterations essential to convey the center East into line with the built nations of either West and East.

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Some Israeli actions have already done more for the pan-Arab cause than any Arab leader since Gamal Abdel Nasser. Similarly, Israeli extremism, both nationalist and religious, is nourished and encouraged by the tendency of some Palestinian organizations to resort to bloody terrorism every time there is a hitch—or a success—in the negotiations. The peace process still has a long way to go, on a path beset with obstacles and ambushes. It may be halted, deflected or even reversed by acts of folly or fanaticism or by the deadly combination of the two.

Syria has The End of Modern History in the Middle East 31 threatened the independence of both Jordan and Lebanon; for three decades (1976–2005), Syria’s writ ran in Lebanon. It was the good fortune of the Lebanese that American power came to their rescue during a particularly assertive interlude in American diplomacy. Iraq has attempted by various means to make good its claims to Kuwait. It could do so again in the future, though the new Iraq that emerged out of the war of 2003 is unlikely to resume the adventurism of the prior dictatorship.

The likeliest—and the best—prospect for the coming years is a cold peace in which Israel might expect minimal cooperation from the political and diplomatic establishment to avoid war. Businessmen may cooperate for mutual profit, soldiers out of mutual respect, politicians in recognition of a common enemy. But many intellectuals have none of these motives, and, with few but increasing exceptions, they will trail after the peace process rather than precede and advance it. In an era when pan-Arab nationalism and the imperialisms against which it was directed have faded into an ever more remote past, the struggle against Israel remains the only common Arab cause, and only Israel’s actions can from time to time revive the flagging fortunes of pan-Arabism.

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