Download The Elements: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Philip Ball PDF

By Philip Ball

This Very brief creation is an exhilarating and non-traditional method of knowing the terminology, homes, and type of chemical components. It strains the historical past and cultural impression of the weather on humankind, and examines why humans have lengthy sought to spot the components round them.

The booklet comprises chapters on specific components equivalent to gold, iron, and oxygen, exhibiting how they formed tradition and know-how. having a look past the Periodic desk, the writer examines our courting with subject, from the simple imaginative and prescient of the Greek philosophers, who believed there have been 4 elements--earth, air, hearth, and water--to the paintings of modern day scientists in growing components resembling hassium and meitnerium. choked with anecdotes, the weather is a hugely enticing and enjoyable exploration of the elemental query: what's the international made of?

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Since the diastereoselectivities in these reactions are seldom above 90 ~, the advantage of not having to prepare prochirally pure enolates is not that apparent. The situation in cyclic ketones is a little different, since the corresponding lithium, magnesium and boron E enolates react threo-selectively. , Equation 66 25) OLi OTi[OCHMe2} 3 193 0 19,~ OH C~ ~ 195 I96 a R = CsH s 86 : 1/, b R = CH(CH3) 2 96 : /, (66) Variation of the ligands at titanium can lead to improvements. For example, enolates 197a-b react with benzaldehyde to afford 92:8 and 97:3 mixtures of 195a and 196a, respectively 25k Enolates 199-202, derived from ketones, lactones and lactams, add erythro-selectively to benzaldehyde to yield the corresponding aldols (erythro: threo as 85:15, 91:9, 92:8, 58:42 and 88:12, respectively) 2s,77).

Angew. Chem. 92, 933 (1980); Angew. , Int. Ed. Engl. 19, 901 (1980) 75. Reetz, M. T. , Frankfurt 1980 76. : Helv. Chim. Acta 63, 2451 (1980) 77. Reetz, M. T. et al. : unpublished results, Univ. Marburg 1980-82 78. Weidmann, B. : Helv. Chim. Acta 64, 357 (1981) 79. Reetz, M. , Maus, S. : in prepa~ration 80. , Maycock, C. : Helv. Claim. Acta 64, 1552 (1981) 8 I. TiC14and Ti(OR)4 are cheap raw materials used in large quantities in industry. Zirconium analogs cost about 3-4 times as much 82. Reetz, M.

46, 4292 (1981) and lit. cited therein; c) Rieke, R. D. : Acc. Chem. Res. 10, 301 (1977) t2. : Angew. Chem. 89, 858 (1977); Angew. , Int. Ed. Engl. 16, 817 (1977) 13. Reetz, M. : Angew. Chem. 94, 97 (1982); Angew. , Int. Ed. Engl. 21, 96 (1982) 14. Chan, T. : Synthesis 1979, 761 15. See for example: Chem. Abstr. 61: 4223f (1964); 67: 73173b (1967); 74: 100452v (1971) 16. Seebach, D. et al. : Synthesis 1982, 138 17. ,,Tiians/iureester", Information Pamphlet, Dynamit Nobel AG, Troisdorf, W-Germany 18.

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