By Peter Janich (auth.), Wolfgang Krohn, Edwin T. Layton Jr., Peter Weingart (eds.)
The interrelations of technological know-how and expertise as an item of research appear to have drawn the eye of a few disciplines: the heritage of either technological know-how and expertise, sociology, economics and monetary heritage, or even the philosophy of technology. The query that involves brain is whether or not the phenomenon itself is new or if advances within the disciplines concerned account for this novel curiosity, or, in reality, if either are intercon nected. while the editors got down to plan this quantity, their roughly particular conviction used to be that the connection of technological know-how and know-how did display a brand new configuration and that the disciplines focused on 1tS research failed not less than partly to house the swap as a result of conceptual and methodological preconceptions. to assert this doesn't suggest a verdict at the insufficiency of 1 and the prevalence of the other one disciplinary process. really, the location is way extra advanced. In economics, for instance, the curiosity within the dating among technology and know-how is deeply motivated via the theoretical challenge of accounting for the criteria of monetary development. the first trouble is with know-how and the matter is whether or not the marketplace induces technological advances or whether or not they set off new calls for that designate the following diffusion of recent applied sciences. technological know-how is usually thought of to be an exogenous issue indirectly topic to marketplace forces and, for that reason, seems to be of no interest.
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Additional info for The Dynamics of Science and Technology: Social Values, Technical Norms and Scientific Criteria in the Development of Knowledge
The protophysical program has first been worked out in the field of time-measurement. Cf. P. Janich, Die Protophysik der Zeit, Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut, 1969. A revised and enlarged edition will appear in 1978 (,Protophysics of Time', in Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science XXX, Dordrecht: Reidel). 3. This program is first formulated in P. Janich, Zweck und Methodeder Physik inphilosophischer Sieht, KonstanL: Universltatsverlag, I ~73. 4. A detailed argumentation proving this statement is given in P.
Introduction That science, both as an institution and a body of knowledge, is neither invariant nor homogeneous is by now widely accepted. Thus Ravetz (I) has argued that three distinct varieties of science have been historically perceived and have been associated with particular interest groups: (i) 'Pure, academic science' which was based on an ideology derived from nineteenth-century German universities: Here science is totally inward looking, its only offerings to the outside world are general contributions to knowledge and culture, unpredictable technological applications, and the example of its endeavour (2).
In summary, three characteristic features of the goal-direction of scientific research can be identified: goal establishment, goal mediation and goal evolution. It is important to recognise that these are only analytically distinct; it would be very unusual for them to follow each other as three distinct phases. In the subsequent sections we will examine these features and illustrate them with examples drawn from a number of case studies in order to assess the utility of the concept of goal-direction in science and to develop a model which provides the basis for a clearer and more practical understanding for both scientists and science administrators of the ways in which modern science is, and can be, directed.
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