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By Aziz S. Atiya

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VII. VIII. Auroral Distribution Auroral Forms Auroral Spectra Dynamics of the Aurora and Auroral Substorms Power Supply of the Aurora Auroral Discharge Current System Solar Activities and the Aurora Auroral Effects GLOSSARY Auroral electrojets Narrowly concentrated ionospheric currents; one flows eastward along the evening part of the auroral oval and the other flows westward in the morning part. Auroral kilometric radiations Intense kilometric radio emissions emitted by auroral plasmas in the auroral potential structure.

The difficulty is that a constant K describes a situation in which all diffusing “eddies” are small compared with the scale of the plume. This is true for molecular dispersion but not for turbulent dispersion. If the eddy diffusivity K is allowed to Atmospheric Turbulence vary with height (in the same manner as K for heat transport, for example), the effective K will grow with distance from a ground source. The results are then quite realistic for estimating vertical diffusion from a continuous ground source, except in the case of strong convection.

Therefore, there are irregular volumes of low and high refractive index that act as imperfect diffraction gratings and partially reflect these types of waves. There are two types of applications of this phenomenon. In the first application, pulsed waves can be emitted, typically from the ground (radar, sodar, lidar), and their reflections can be recorded at the ground. The characteristics of the reflected waves provide information about the turbulence and sometimes the mean motion at the point of reflection (by measuring Doppler shifts).

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