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Extra info for The carbohydrates and alcohol, (Industrial chemistry ... ed. by Samuel Rideal) (Industrial chemistry ... ed. by Samuel Rideal)

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A. P. Bryant, " Factory Control in the Manufacture of Corn Starch and Corn Syrup," Jottr. Ind. Eng. , 1916, 930. C. O'Sullivan, " Maltose," Jouy. Chem. , 1872, 579. L. Cuisinier, " Maltose," La Sucrcrie Indig. , 1884, 23, 279 ; 1887,20,81. C. B. Duryea, " Industrial Maltose," Jour. Ind. Eng. , 1914, 419. —CANE SUGAR THE universal sweetening substance in use at the present time is cane sugar, whether derived from the sugar cane, which formerly furnished the whole supply of sugar, the beetroot, sugar maple, sorghum or sugar palm, for the purified product from any of these sources is the chemical compound sucrose, C12H22On.

Whole, crushed, bruised, or broken grain or other granular amylaceous material is used in a condition such that steam may be able to permeate a mass of it. Rice or other grain in the form of flour is unsuitable, as the gelatinous paste which would be formed by it would be impermeable to steam. The grain is first macerated in 2 per cent, hydrochloric acid, which dissolves proteids and carries off essential oil. The acid is drawn off below and water then percolated until neutral to litmus, when the mass is drained and again macerated with I or 2 per cent, hydrochloric or other acid until the grain has 40 CARBOHYDRATES taken up enough acid to effect conversion into glucose, the proportion varying with the nature of the grain.

The value of the exports to the principal colonial and neutral markets was: Germany (1912), £288,350 ; Austria-Hungary (1913), £27,580 ; United Kingdom (1913), £72,610. , £30,000. More than half of the total Austrian exports consisted of paste, size, and similar starch-containing sticking and dressing substances, and rice starch and rice starch meal. The corn (maize) manufactured into corn products in the United States amounts to 50 million bushels per annum. From this are produced 400,000 tons of glucose, 300,000 tons of starch, 115,000 tons of grape sugar, 300,000 tons of gluten feed, 37,000 tons of oil, and 45,000 tons of oil cake; 300,000 bushels of potatoes are used in the starch factories.

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