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By Itzchak Weismann

Modernization within the Muslim international was resolute through the 2 interrelated tactics of indigenous nation formation and ecu monetary penetration. those drove governments to enlist the orthodox and the loads in aid of the consolidation in their imperative authority, and spiritual reformers to hunt, partially via Western units, assessments on their authority. This learn lines the emergence of recent Islam and examines the connection of Islamic modernization to the increase of Arab Nationalism.

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Alternatively, I use the latter term in those cases in which it is important to stress that the Kh§lidiyya did adhere to the legacy of the Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddidiyya. The Sufi Roots The Naqshbandiyya defines itself as ãarÊqat al-ßaȧba, the path of the Prophet’s Companions, observing this root without adding or omitting anything thereof. Thus it constantly embodies the state of servitude to God (#ubådiyya), which it regards as the sufi’s goal. This state of servitude has two aspects: external and internal.

62-64, 9296. 24 part one that emerged from the Naqshbandiyya generally preserved the name of the mother order and regarded themselves as part of its tradition. Khw§ja Bah§" al-DÊn Naqshband, like the eponymous founders of most other sufi orders, was basically a spiritual master guiding his circle of disciples in his hometown, Bukhara. The task of consolidating and spreading the ãarÊqa was left, therefore, mainly to his successors. Most outstanding among them in the early generations was undoubtedly N§ßir al-DÊn #Ubaydall§h AÈr§r (1404-1490) of Tashkent, who in his activity embodied the political power inherent in the mystical principles of the Naqshbandiyya.

Kh§lid al-NaqshbandÊ, “Ris§la fÊ Ithb§t al-R§biãa,” in ‘§Èib, Bughyat al-W§jid, pp. 72-79, and #A. Kh§nÊ, Al-\ad§"iq al-Wardiyya, pp. 295-297. 29 Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill, 1975), p. 171. 30 This fact is frequently emphasized in the NaqshbandÊ expositions. See for 28 38 chapter one strong effect of this type of recollecting God’s name. 31 Naturally, the silent dhikr stresses the orthodoxy of the Naqshbandiyya, distancing it from the more popular forms of the ceremonies that are practiced among other orders, which normally include music and dance and at times also intoxication and physical pain.

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