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By Kemal H. Karpat

This paintings includes a suite of articles and essays released in numerous journals, which search to spot and research mostly the inner forces which reworked the Ottoman kingdom right into a number of nationwide states within the Balkans and the center East. It reviews the transformation of "miri" (state) lands into inner most estate, the following upward push of a brand new propertied center classification within the nation-state with its personal stratum of intellectuals and notables as getting ready the increase of a civil order which embraced or rejected because the scenario demanded the outdated statist philosophy and the recent paperwork. It stories migration as a key issue which introduced many Muslim ethnic teams into Anatolia that produced a social restructuring and new smooth Ottoman-Islamic-Turkish tradition that shaped the ethno-cultural roots of Republican Turkey.

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Extra resources for Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays (Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East and Asia) (Social, ... Studies of the Middle East and Asia)

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In addition, the history of the Middle East and the Balkans in the nineteenth century has been viewed and interpreted from rather dogmatic national viewpoints. Consequently, the changes in the social and political structures of the Ottoman empire, and the profound impact of these changes on the nature of the emerging national states in the area, have often been ignored or interpreted in line with the writers' ideological and national biases. Such interpretations have resulted not only from a certain unwillingness to shed one's cultural and religious outlook on history but also from insufficient knowledge of the social history of the Ottoman state.

Thus religion in ethnic garb became the source of political identity and was used to justify driving out "alien" Muslims in order to establish "pure" national states. As the "cleansing" of the Muslims that started with the Serbian revolt of 1804 continued throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, some 9 million Muslims from the Crimea, Caucasus, Crete and the Balkans were uprooted from their native homes and forced to emigrate to Turkey. 23 Because another factor behind the Muslim cleansing and the discrimination by the nationalists was the need to establish a strong majority for the dominant titular population, largescale dislocations of population have continued.

2. The Dichotomy of Social Structures and Political Tension in the Ottoman Empire The military reforms undertaken by sultans Mustafa III (1757-74) and Abdiilhamit I (1774—89), despite the great importance attached to them by scholars as the formative bases of a new elite, as the first channels of communication with the West and as the foundations of new modes of thought, had in reality a more modest goal, namely to assure the survival of the state against external and internal 30 OTTOMAN TRANSFORMATION & DEMOGRAPHY MIGRATION challenges.

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