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By Gerald F. Gaus

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E. 10 There are, however, clear limits to the kinds of semantic dimensions that can be covered by such an independent subjectivizer. 11 (9b) and (9c) are simply semantically unacceptable. And in (9d) the prepositional phrase may, marginally, allow a reading as a spatial direction marker (‘towards me’), but reading it as a marker of subjectivity appears very difficult. (9) a. â•›*I think it is 9 o’clock [with think meaning ‘in my view’] b. *Ik vind dat hij in Frankrijk is I find that he in France is ‘In my opinion he is in France’ c.

As in (8c). And in English, the prepositional phrase to me is also often used as a subjectivity marker, as illustrated in (8d) and (8e). (8) a. I think we should help him, he deserves it b. ╇ Subjectivity in modality, and beyond c. Dat is, vind ik, niet erg verstandig van je that is, find I, not very clever of you ‘I don’t think that’s very clever of you’ d. Sounds like a stupid question to me e. To me you are really driving too fast In each of these cases, the subjectivity marker then concerns a semantic element expressed elsewhere in the utterance.

According to its promoter, Davide Vannoni, the Stamina method is a stem-cell treatment which is supposed to turn mesenchymal stem cells, known to be used to generate bones and adipose tissue, into neural cells. According to its supporters, when these neural cells have been infused in patients, mostly children, with various neurodegenerative diseases, in the space of a few weeks significant improvements have been observed in these patients’ condition. While Stamina supporters, headed by Davide Vannoni, on the basis of this (questionable) evidence, claim categorically that the method is a very effective 43 44 Paolo Labinaz and Marina Sbisà and safe therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, the Italian scientific community, supported by some international scientific associations and the scientific journal Nature, has claimed that without any scientific control it is unsafe to administer unknown therapies to patients.

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