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By T. Dokos

For many nations, safety this day is essentially measured in non-military phrases and threats to safety are non-military in nature. those threats comprise incompetent executive, corruption, equipped crime, insecure borders, smuggling (weapons, medications, contraband, people), unlawful migration, ethnic and spiritual clash, proliferation of guns of mass destruction, scarcity of traditional assets (e.g., water) and, in fact, terrorism. As defense is not any longer only a army drawback, it's not simply the shield of MODs and MFAs that have, to this point, been the most ministries concerned with safeguard cooperation. it really is now not attainable to attract a transparent contrast among exterior protection and inner defense. safeguard henceforth calls for the coordination of the 'external' ministries (i.e., MOD and MFA) and their businesses (armed forces, intelligence prone) with these of the 'interior' ministries: inner affairs, schooling, finance, abroad improvement, delivery, setting; wellbeing and fitness, etc., with their enterprises (policing forces, safeguard prone, catastrophe reduction businesses, etc.). safety this day takes in social improvement and calls for the involvement of all components of society in a fashion which safeguard within the chilly warfare days didn't. assembly those new protection requisites calls for basic reform of nationwide buildings, styles of funding, and structures of presidency. Likewise it calls for the evolution of foreign associations on a really radical scale.

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Extra info for Security Sector Transformation in Southeastern Europe and the Middle East (Nato Science for Peace and Security Series. Human and Societal Dynamics)

Example text

When embarking on security sector reform programmes, every country became aware of the fact that reshaping military formations and transforming the entire defence organisation were two different things. The first is a technical adaptation to new contingencies, the second deals with a wide spectrum ranging from democratic procedures to modern personnel management. The case of Romania is illustrative, but by no means unique. The first cycle of the Membership Action Plan (MAP) for NATO membership exposed serious dysfunctional features: planning was unrealistic with a great discrepancy between objectives and available resources, co-ordination between departments and services was lacking, and the personnel pyramid was inverted by large numbers of officers remaining in spite of considerable downsizing in the lower ranks.

Violation of human rights, torture, authoritarian behaviour and corruption were frequently practised by police and internal security forces. Controlling them is also a question of training and surveillance, but even more important is the institution of a complaint procedure, like individual access to an Ombudsman or similar body in W. van Eekelen / The Parliamentary Dimension of Security Sector Reform 27 cases of unauthorised behaviour. Equally, an independent and honest judiciary is an indispensable element of the rule of law in a democratic system.

The current controversies in the US and UK regarding the quality of intelligence regarding Iraq prior to the invasion in 2003 demonstrates how crucial the relation of intelligence and policy has become. Of course, these techniques were deployed before 9/11, for example, the use of ‘targeted assassinations’ by the IDF against Palestinians suspected of terrorism. 3 With particular respect to internal security, these tendencies also pre-date 9/11 but have been reinforced since then. For example, governments characterise problems such as drug-trafficking, crime, and terrorism as ‘wars’ in order to drum up public support and legitimise greater use of pre-emptive means.

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