By Nikolaus P. Himmelmann, Eva F. Schultze-Berndt
This can be the 1st publication to procedure depictive secondary predication - a scorching subject in syntax and semantics learn - from a crosslinguistic viewpoint. It maps out all of the appropriate phenomena and brings jointly serious surveys and new contributions on their morphosyntactic and semantic properties.
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Extra resources for Secondary Predication and Adverbial Modification: The Typology of Depictives
B. The fresh buying of the carrots (by George). However, even these examples may be used to show that the supposedly clear semantic difference between participant-oriented (depictives) and event-oriented adjuncts (adverbials) is not quite so straightforward. That is, the paraphrase tests which are supposed to be diagnostic for this difference are ﬂawed in that it is possible to paraphrase the ‘adverbial’ construction in (16) as (19), in analogy to the paraphrase of the depictive construction in (15).
This participant orientation is often seen as the main feature distinguishing secondary predicates from adverbials, which are considered to be exclusively event-oriented. As we will see shortly, however, participant orientation and event orientation are not clearly aligned with depictive and adverbial constructions, respectively. Before turning to the classiﬁcation of adverbials, we may note two problems with the simple classiﬁcation of secondary predicates into depictives and resultatives. 3. Second, it is not clear whether resultatives are in fact secondary predicates.
They ascribe a certain characteristic to the agent on the basis of the 8 N. P. Himmelmann and E. Schultze-Berndt event which it performs. The agentive orientation of the adverb in (8) is clear from paraphrases such as (10). (10) It was stupid of John to answer the question. In the ‘pure manner’ use of the same adverb in (6b), in contrast, stupidity is ascribed to the way John answers the question. Ernst (2000a; 2000b) makes the intuitions behind these paraphrases more explicit by stating that agent-oriented adverbials evaluate the agent with respect to the event that is performed, where the comparison class consists of other possible events.
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