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By Christopher Darnton

Competition and Alliance Politics in chilly struggle Latin the United States, Christopher Darnton's comparative learn of the character of clash among Latin American states in the course of the chilly battle, presents a counterintuitive and wise clarification of why international relations does or does not paintings. in particular, he develops a thought that indicates how the "parochial pursuits" of country bureaucracies can weigh down nationwide leaders' overseas coverage tasks and complicate local alliances. His thorough overview of a number of twentieth-century Latin American conflicts covers the gamut of diplomatic disputes from border clashes to monetary provocations to local energy struggles. Darnton examines the household political and monetary stipulations that give a contribution both to competition (continued clash) or rapprochement (diplomatic reconciliation) whereas assessing the influence of U.S. overseas coverage. distinctive case experiences supply not just a strong attempt of the speculation but in addition a desirable journey of Latin American historical past and chilly warfare politics, together with a multilayered exam of Argentine-Brazilian strategic pageant and presidential summits over 4 a long time; 3 rivalries in imperative the US following Cuba's 1959 revolution; and the way the Nineteen Eighties debt problem entangled the diplomatic affairs of a number of Andean international locations. those questions on overseas contention and rapprochement are of specific curiosity to safeguard experiences and diplomacy students, as they search to appreciate what defuses local conflicts, creates more advantageous incentives for making improvements to diplomatic ties among states, and builds potent alliances. The research additionally bears fruit for modern stories of counterterrorism in its critique of parallels among the chilly conflict and the worldwide warfare on Terror, its exam of failed rapprochement efforts among Algeria and Morocco, and its evaluate of hindrances to U.S. coalition-building efforts.

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47 Agencies generally act to protect their benefits. This requires defending their mission against any threatening policy changes; in the context of rivalry, this means preventing rapprochement. In short, once missions create vested interests, these reinforce the rivalry that produced the mission in the first place. 48 This does not mean that agencies will support escalating the rivalry, though: mission maintenance is not the same thing as the fabrication of crisis or war. Although national leaders may have reasons to prefer cooperation with the rival country, state agencies with 34 Rivalry and Alliance Politics vested interests in rivalry are likely to have both the motivation and the ability to oppose rapprochement.

68 Alternative Arguments Under what conditions does a common foe produce rapprochement? I derive six alternative hypotheses from major works in international relations theory, based on three implicit mechanisms of rivalry maintenance corresponding to realist, liberal, and constructivist worldviews. 69 All of these theories posit that the presence of a common foe has the potential to cause rapprochement among rivals. 3). For each of the three perspectives, I outline the basic model of rivalry maintenance; for each hypothesis on rapprochement, I clarify why and how a common foe ought to contribute to cooperation, identify the major predicted condition under which rapprochement is likely to emerge, and demonstrate the plausibility of that prediction for rivalries in Cold War Latin America.

If parochially interested pro-rivalry agencies constitute a hawk coalition within government, will they overpower dove groups? The main factor inhibiting the emergence of a powerful dove coalition is an asymmetry of motivation. 53 I expect that the shift in national priorities— expressed as a distribution of benefits including budgets, autonomy, and influence, as discussed above—following the initial episodes of conflict will alter the domestic balance of power decisively in favor of hawks, who can put those benefits to use in future contests with their political opponents.

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