By Zhand Shakibi
What brought on revolution one of the final significant monarchies of the fashionable interval? Why have been Louis XVI, Nicholas II and Mohammad Reza Pahlavi all overthrown and used to be this the results of their old history or person motion? This robust and unique publication is the 1st comparative research of the implosion of the monarchical regimes in Bourbon France, Romanov Russia and Pahlavi Iran. trying to comprehend absolutely the reasons and timing of the French, Russian and Iranian revolutions, Shakibi examines the complicated interplay among the character and behaviour of the monarchs and the several difficulties confronted by way of their regimes which grew to become a most likely innovative state of affairs into the revolutions which engulfed France within the eighteenth century, Russia in 1917 and Iran in 1978-8. Drawing on a massive volume of basic and archival learn during the international, Revolutions and the cave in of the Monarchy argues that it really is human corporation which regularly presents the important spark which produces revolution. An formidable and significant counter-blast to conventional theories of revolution.
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Extra info for Revolutions and the Collapse of the Monarchy: Human Agency and the Making of Revolution in France, Russia and Iran (International Library of Historical Studies)
Modernisation had become, as in Russia, a government policy. But, a difference existed. Romanov monarchical ideology was not directly dependent on 'modernisation' as it came to be for Pahlavi ideology. Yet, the Romanovs' legitimacy was linked to maintenance of Russia's great power status. This status required modernisation from above. Pau1. '" Due to this vantage point above societal divisions, the king carried the responsibility to interpret the needs of the state, to render justice and to arbitrate.
He chaired the meetings of these councils (they usually met twice a week) where all decisions concerning foreign and domestic policy were taken. But, in the later years of Louis XV's reign and during the reign of Louis XVI decisions tended to be taken during the monarch's weekly travails or ad-hoc meetings with particular ministers. The decisions were then presented to the relevant council for rubber stamping. This tendency increased the importance of the king as the central coordinating figure in the government since only he knew what was going on in all the m i n i s t r i e ~ .
An Iranian equivalent of hlaurepas, Saint-Simon, Fleury, Sheremetev, or Vorontsov, let alone aristocratic organisations did not exist. Not since the Sassanian period did Iran have an entrenched and large hereditary noble class. The Iranian shahs never encountered afronde or Decembrist revolt. The central elite was indeed dependent on the shah for its continued status and riches. T o be sure, during the Qajar period families related to the dynasty itself, like the Farmanfarmaian, established themselves as aristocratic dynasties but they never had the political and financial power of a major French or Russian noble house.
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