By Rosemary Lynn Hopcroft
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Additional info for Regions, Institutions, and Agrarian Change in European History (Economics, Cognition, and Society)
A person given land "toward the sun" had strips in the east or south of each furlong, while a person with land "toward the shade" had strips in the west or north of each furlong. This practice of sun division apparently had religious (or superstitious) significance (Romans 1 94 1 ; G6ransson 1 96 1 , 80- 1 0 1 ; Dodgshon 1 980) . 36 Regions, Institutions, and Agrarian Change The regularity suggests the second process by which the communal open field system may have been implemented-through a major rearrangement of land at a single point in time.
There was no necessary association between agricultural specialization, population density, and communal participation in agriculture (Blum 1 96 1 ; Chayanov 1 9 86; Bois 1 984; Over ton 1 996, 6 1 ; see also Hopcroft 1 995). In sum, ecology is a good first attempt at explaining regional differ ences in economic organization across Europe . Ecology was associated with regional differences in field systems, as the most naturally fertile land of Europe typically was characterized by communal systems of agricul- Explaining Regional Differences in Economic Organization 31 ture.
Other dues and obligations remained, however. Customary tenants were also subject to the authority of the manorial court, that is, the court run by the feudal lord. In midland England there was typically only one lord per village, although on the Continent it was quite common for several lords to share jurisdiction over a village and its lands. This became more common in times of rising population, first in the thirteenth century and again in the later fifteenth and sixteenth centuries . The manor court judged any conflicts and disputes that arose in the vil lage.
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