By Patrick O'Brien
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Extra resources for Railways and the Economic Development of Western Europe, 1830–1914
Au Nord, 1849-1912 44 RaiZways and Eaonomia DeveZopment. 1830-1914 et l'ont allongee; ils ont empeche le retour des disettes' (15). It will be instructive to juxtapose his eulogy against a calculation of the social savings from railways. Social savings which compare the cost of sending freight by rail with the hypothetical cost of despatching it by alternative forms of transportation were calculated by French engineers preparing the Freycinet Plan in the l870s. 27 billions; the percentage of third-class kilometres can be estimated as 60 per cent of the total.
57. See pp. 34-5 and Fenoaltea, 'Railroads and Italian Industrial Growth', pp. 338-9. 58. See p. 123 and Fremdling, Eisenbahnen und Deutsches Wirtschaftswachstum, pp. 151-8. 59. Williamson, 'Greasing the Wheels', pp. 203-9; Fishlow, pp. 117-18 and pp. 302-3. 60. See pp. 164 and 205 and Fenoaltea, 'Railroads and Italian Industrial Growth', p. 327, and O. Crisp, Studies in the Russian Economy Before 1914 (London, 1976) chs. 7 and 8. 61. See pp. 28-9 and M. C. Reed, Investment in Railways in Britain, l82o-40 (London, 1975) and G.
Their forward linkage effects on the growth of Germany's coal and metallurgical industries were profound enough for Fremdling to label the railroad as 'the hero of Germany's industrial revolution' (70). In France their advent led (as Caron shows) to the spread of wine cultivation in Languedoc, and stock raising in the Charente (71). Railways carried forward the reduction in transportation costs initiated by waterborne carriers and thereby widened markets, stimulated competition and provided access to natural resources and more efficient locations for productive activity.
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