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By Mona Lena Krook

Lately, political events and nationwide legislatures in additional than 100 international locations have followed quotas for the choice of girl applicants to political place of work. regardless of the swift foreign diffusion of those measures, so much study has fascinated with unmarried nations - or, at so much, the presence of quotas inside one global sector. therefore, factors for the adoption and impression of gender quotas derived from one examine usually contradict with findings from different situations. Quotas for girls in Politics is the 1st publication to handle quotas as a world phenomenon to provide an explanation for their unfold and impression in different contexts world wide. it's prepared round units of questions. First, why are quotas followed? Which actors are serious about quota campaigns, and why do they aid or oppose quota measures? moment, what results do quotas have on latest styles of political illustration? Are those provisions enough for bringing extra ladies into politics? Or, does their impression rely on different beneficial properties of the wider political context? Synthesizing literature on quota rules, this ebook develops a framework for reading the unfold of quota provisions and the explanations for diversifications of their results. It then applies this framework to ascertain and examine campaigns for reserved seats in Pakistan and India, occasion quotas in Sweden and the uk, and legislative quotas in Argentina and France.

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Yet, the vast majority of these studies emphasize domestic explanations, despite the fact that quotas appeared on political agendas in many countries around the same time (Krook 2006b). In contrast, the approach developed in this chapter seeks to draw connections among campaigns and promote more explicit comparisons among cases to elaborate a common framework for analyzing quota adoption, open to the possibility of multiple models of quota reform. The result is a more inclusive model of quota adoption that considers various actors and motivations while also enabling scholars to situate their findings more readily in relation to studies of other countries.

However, all three narratives are challenged by evidence from other cases, suggesting that none of these factors—at least when viewed in isolation from others—has a single set of generalizable effects. Details of Quota Policies A large group of studies analyzes implementation with regard to the details of quota policies. Initial surveys focused on the type of quota: most agreed that reserved seats tended to produce only small changes in women’s representation (Chowdhury 2002; but see Norris 2006), but debated whether party quotas or legislative quotas were ultimately more effective (Leijenaar 1997; Jones 1998; cf.

A key element is often mobilization by women’s sections inside political parties, which may draw on gains made by women in other parties to press for quotas in their own parties (Lovenduski and Norris 1993). They usually succeed when advocates frame quotas as an effective tool for winning women’s votes, which can be an especially effective argument in cases where parties seek to overcome a long period in opposition or a dramatic decrease in popularity (Perrigo 1999; Stevenson 2000). Electoral incentives may all the same prove to be a double-edged sword, as opponents also argue against quotas for women on the grounds of electoral competition, claiming that women are less effective candidates than men and thus that increasing the proportion of women threatens to decrease the party’s electoral fortunes (Bruhn 2003; Murray 2004).

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