By Wen X.G.

For many of the final century, condensed subject physics has been ruled via band thought and Landau's symmetry breaking conception. within the final 20 years, even though, there was the emergence of a brand new paradigm linked to fractionalization, topological order, emergent gauge bosons andfermions, and string condensation. those new actual strategies are so basic that they might even impression our figuring out of the beginning of sunshine and electrons within the universe. This booklet is a pedagogical and systematic creation to the hot thoughts and quantum box theoretical equipment incondensed topic physics. It discusses many simple notions in theoretical physics, which underlie actual phenomena in nature, together with a thought that unifies gentle and electrons. issues coated are dissipative quantum platforms, boson condensation, symmetry breaking and gapless excitations, phasetransitions, Fermi drinks, spin density wave states, Fermi and fractional statistics, quantum corridor results, topological/quantum order, spin liquid and string condensation. tools mentioned comprise the trail crucial, Green's features, mean-field thought, powerful idea, renormalization group,bosonization in a single- and better dimensions, non-linear sigma-model, quantum gauge idea, dualities, slave-boson conception, and precisely soluble versions past one-dimension. This publication is geared toward bringing scholars to the frontiers of analysis in condensed subject physics.

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P. Glicofridis, R. Ashoori, and M. Shayegan, 2000, Topographic Mapping of the Quantum Hall Liquid using a Few-Electron Bubble, Science 289, 90. Fisher, M. P. , and D. H. Lee, 1989, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 903. , and S. H. Shenker, 1979, Phase diagrams of lattice gauge theories with Higgs fields, Phys. Rev. D 19, 3682. , and C. King, 1989, Comm. Math. Phys. 126, 167. , and A. Zee, 1991, Nucl. Phys. B 364, 517. 213 Ginzburg, V. , and L. D. Landau, 1950, J. exp. theor. Phys. 20, 1064. , 1984, Phys.

50) 1 where α = 2π J/2g is the artificial fine structure constant. The mass of the charged boson m is 2 −1 (8tl ) . An artificial atom (a bound state of two positive and negative charged bosons) has an energy level spacing 14 mc2a α2 and a size of order 2/αmca . In the following, we will discuss one experiment that can detect some of the above properties in the 2D system. Let us assume the rotor carries an electric dipole moment. c. to the rotor. Such a coupling can create a pair of positive and negative charged bosons.

Kivelson, 1989, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 82.