Download Principles of Cardiac Diagnosis and Treatment: A Surgeons’ by Donald N. Ross FRCS, DSc, FACS, Sir Terence A. H. English PDF

By Donald N. Ross FRCS, DSc, FACS, Sir Terence A. H. English KBE, PRCS, FRCS, Roxane McKay MD, FRCS (auth.)

Leading center surgeons (including the President of the Royal collage of Surgeons) bridge the ever-widening hole among the "student" (both pre- and post-graduate) and an increas- ingly distant team of scientific and surgical experts during this , the single publication committed totally to the confirmed ideas of cardiac diagnosis.

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Extra info for Principles of Cardiac Diagnosis and Treatment: A Surgeons’ Guide

Example text

In addition, turbulence, as blood passes through narrow or irregular channels (thrills), may be detected. Having made an assessment of the nature of the disorder and its most likely site, it is then useful to listen to the working of the pump in different areas, in order to gain more precise information. The sequence of a cardiovascular examination, then, is inspection followed by palpation and cerebration, and concluding with auscultation. Of these, cerebration is by far the most important. Inspection of the Precordium Note should be made of the shape and the movement of the precordium.

Is most clearly audible medial to the apex. ). , Left intercostal space. Aortic and pulmonary ejection clicks are high-pitched sounds produced by the sudden arrest of upward movement in mobile but restricted valve cusps. They are heard just after the first heart sound and coincide with the start of the systolic Fig. 25. ) at the pulmonary area. ) of puimonary regurgitation. 50 Principles of Cardiac Diagnosis murmur caused by blood flow through a narrow or deformed aortic or pulmonary valve. Heard best in the fourth interspace to the left of the sternum or at the apex, the aortic ejection click may be transmitted up towards the root of the neck.

Thrills emanating from the base of the heart (aortic and pulmonary valves) are best felt with the patient sitting forward and withihe breath held in expiration. The thrills of infundibular stenosis and of ventricular septal defect are generally felt in the third and fourth left interspaces respectively, and a muscular ventricular septal defect felt somewhat lower on the precordium. Closure of the cardiac valves gives rise to the heart sounds but the shock waves they produce are not generally palpable.

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