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Because this system required energy, cells were resistant only when a sufficient energy source, such as glucose, was present. In a later study (Warth, 1988) it was determined that energy was required for the reduction in cytoplasmic benzoate concentration and for the maintenance of internal pH. Thus, the energy source was unavailable for growth, resulting in reduced growth yields and rates of cell production by yeasts. 7). 25 mM benzoic acid (first five species) or 2 mM benzoic acid (last four species).

0. Adaptation to higher preservative concentrations was demonstrated with benzoic acid. Resistance to dimethyldicarbonate was greater than that of Z. bailii and S. cerevisiae. The authors concluded that Z. lentus was likely to be more significant than Z. bailii in the spoilage of refrigerated foods. Differences in resistance among yeast species could be the result of differences in the rate of penetration of the cell by benzoic acid, the capacity of the cell to remove it, or an intrinsic sensitivity to benzoic acid or its anion (Warth, 1989c).

Conversion could be prevented by addition of benzoic acid or sodium benzoate. The results suggested that these preservatives blocked an enzymatic step late in the biosynthetic pathway of aflatoxin B1. With the previously mentioned results in mind, benzoic acid might also change the permeability of the microbial cell membranes by possibly causing a conformational change in the lip moieties of these structures. This might result in inhibition of membrane-bound enzymes as a secondary effect. Similar results were observed with 2, 4-dinitrophenol and cell envelope-associated enzymes of E.

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