Download Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 by Peter Günter, Jean-Pierre Huignard PDF

By Peter Günter, Jean-Pierre Huignard

This moment quantity of the sequence on photorefractive results makes a speciality of the newest advancements within the box and highlights the parameters which govern the photoinduced nonlinearity. along with reviewing traditional electro-optic crystals, this ebook bargains with natural photorefractive fabrics, giving an in-depth evaluation of the current figuring out of the impact in various fabrics. The fabrics thought of during this quantity will play an important function within the improvement of functions akin to provided within the 3rd volume.

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Extra resources for Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2

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9. a: Schematic representation of the four levels in BT:Rh, defined by the three charge states of Rh and by three states of the background contamination Fe. The chosen energies are not to scale. The levels exchange holes with the valence band by optical excitation (double arrows), thermal excitation (wavy arrows) and recombination (single arrows). The corresponding rates are indicated beside the arrows. Here the parameters have the following meanings: S, absorption cross-sections; q, quantum efficiencies for ionization after absorption; β, thermal transition rates; γ , recombination parameters.

The useful influence of Rh on the photorefractive properties of BT was discovered in 1993 by Ross et al. [98] and was intensely studied in the following years [99, 100]. 1) [102]. On this basis and relying on experimentally determined values of the effective trap density Neff , Huot et al. [103] and Corner et al. [104] analyzed the charge transfer properties of the system quantitatively. However, because the available experimental information was not sufficient to determine all relevant parameters, a simplified theoretical basis was employed.

In such materials acceptor defects are compensated by VO [32]. In LN, however, it was found from density measurements rather early [31] that the acceptors VLi are not 4• compensated by V•• O , but by NbLi . Here, evidently, the formation of NbLi costs less energy than that of VO . Thus the natural intrinsic donor in LN is NbLi . As a further difference between LN and the ABO3 oxide perovskites, such as BaTiO3 , it should be remarked that the perovskites do not support the formation of BB – BA pairs, corresponding to NbLi –NbNb .

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