Download Ottoman Ulema, Turkish Republic: Agents of Change and by Amit Bein PDF

By Amit Bein

To raised comprehend the various inheritance of Islamic events in present-day Turkey, we needs to take a more in-depth examine the spiritual institution, the ulema, throughout the first half the 20 th century. in the course of the remaining years of the Ottoman Empire and the early a long time of the Republic of Turkey, the unfold of secularist and anti-religious rules had an enormous influence at the perspectives and political leanings of the ulema. This e-book explores the highbrow debates and political activities of the spiritual institution in this time.Bein unearths how competing visions of improvement prompted debates approximately reforms in spiritual schooling and the modernization of the medreses. He additionally explores the reactions and altering attitudes of Islamic intellectuals to the spiritual rules of the secular republic, and offers a greater figuring out of the adjustments within the courting among faith and kingdom. Exposing department in the spiritual institution, this publication illuminates the ulema's long-lasting legacies nonetheless in facts in Turkey this day.

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This was the case during the Ottoman period and has been the case in historical studies ever since. Severe criticisms and early calls for comprehensive curricular, pedagogical, and administrative reforms in medrese education were voiced in the 1860s. Yet, a few limited modifications notwithstanding, very few changes were introduced to medrese education during the closing decades of the nineteenth century. This situation stood in stark contrast to massive expansion and occasional reforms in the new-style Ottoman school system, and to contemporaneous initiatives for reform in Islamic education in Egypt, India, and Russia.

One of the new institutions was devoted to the training of preachers (Medreset'iil-Vaizin) and the other to imams and orators (Medresetu'l-Eimme ve'l-Hutaba). The new institutions had detailed and regularized curricula and an institutionally centralized administration. Furthermore, their program of study included, besides Islamic sciences, a substantial number of courses in humanistic subjects, exact and natural sciences, and even gymnastics. I n February 1914, shortly before Mustafa Hayri's appointment as Sheikh ul-Islam, the authorities announced the founding of the Medrese for Experts (Medreset'ul-Mutehassisin), envisioned as an institution of higher learning.

Shortly after the outbreak of hostilities, many prospec­ tive and active students were drafted into the military, while many pro­ fessors, ulema and non-ulema alike, were either mobilized to serve in various positions i n the armed forces or reassigned to other teaching positions. '' The Sheikh ul-Islam requested that the students be exempted from service in order to allow them to concentrate on their studies, but his appeal was rejected on the grounds that the national interest required their mobilization.

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