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By Sergei Nirenburg

In Ontological Semantics, Sergei Nirenburg and Victor Raskin introduce a complete method of the remedy of textual content that means by means of laptop. Arguing that having the ability to use which means is essential to the luck of usual language processing (NLP) purposes, they go away from the advert hoc method of that means taken by means of a lot of the NLP group and suggest theory-based semantic equipment. Ontological semantics, an built-in complicated of theories, methodologies, descriptions, and implementations, makes an attempt to systematize principles approximately either semantic description as illustration and manipulation of that means by way of desktop courses. it truly is outfitted on already coordinated "microtheories" overlaying such diversified components as particular language phenomena, processing heuristics, and implementation process structure instead of on remoted parts requiring destiny integration. Ontological semantics is continually evolving, pushed by way of the necessity to make that means manipulation projects resembling textual content research and textual content new release paintings. Nirenburg and Raskin have hence built a suite of heterogeneous tools suited for a selected activity and coordinated on the point of information acquisition and runtime process structure implementations, a strategy that still allows a variable point of automation in all its processes.
Nirenburg and Raskin first speak about ontological semantics in terms of different fields, together with cognitive technology and the AI paradigm, the philosophy of technological know-how, linguistic semantics and the philosophy of language, computational lexical semantics, and reports in formal ontology. They then describe the content material of ontological semantics, discussing text-meaning illustration, static wisdom resources (including the ontology, the very fact repository, and the lexicon), the strategies all for textual content research, and the purchase of static wisdom.

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Of course, language itself has not been ignored by philosophy: much of the philosophy of the 20th century has been interested precisely in language. Under different historical circumstances, philosophy of language would have probably come to be known as a strain of linguistics and/or logic rather than a movement in philosophy. This would not pertain to the so-called “linguistic turn” (cf. Rorty 1967) in philosophy, a sweeping movement from the study of philosophical issues to the study of the utterances expressing these issues.

11 And all the propositions, no matter how they are justified, enjoy equal status with regard to the truth they express. The dethroning of empirical observation as the privileged method of justification reaches its apogee in the view that the depth and maturation of every science requires the introduction and proliferation of an increasingly elaborate system of unobservable theoretical concepts. This view has even been applied to physics, a traditional playground of the philosophy of science. The extent to which a science is sophisticated and useful is measured in its success to move “from data packages to phenomenological hypotheses, to mechanism hypotheses,” (Bunge 1968:126-127) where the last depend entirely on a complex hierarchy of untestable theoretical concepts.

Figures 6 and 7 illustrate these notions. Phenomena Theory Methodology Description Four components can be defined for a theory: Theory: Purview Premises Body Justification purview circumscribes the applicability of the theory; premises make explicit pretheoretical assumptions of a theory; body contains the actual statements of the theory; and justification is a set of statements of why the theory is promulgated in its present form Figure 11. Components of a theory. T h e s e a re o n e a n d th e s a m e t h in g , a t a d if fe r e n t g r a in s iz e Phenom ena K n o w in g th e p r e m is e s h e lp s t o s e le c t th e b e s t m e t h o d o lo g y o r c o m b in a t io n o f m e t h o d o lo g ie s M e t h o d o lo g y T h e o ry D e s c rip tio n T h e o r ie s a r e ju s tif ie d in te r m s o f q u a lity o f d e s c r ip t io n s th e y h e lp t o p r o d u c e ; w h e n th e q u a lit y o f d e s c r ip t io n a t ta in s a n o p tim u m , t h e o r ie s a r e n o lo n g e r needed P u r v ie w P r e m is e s Body J u s t i f ic a t i o n T h e b o d y d e f in e s t h e fo r m a t o f th e d e s c r ip tio n , u s e d b y m e th o d o lo g y Figure 12.

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