Download Non-declarative Sentences by Richard Zuber PDF

By Richard Zuber

Non-declarative sentences reminiscent of interrogatives, imperatives and exclamations are analyzed jointly as a unmarried category. the writer provides a common characterization of all 3 kinds and indicates that there aren't any different forms of non-declarative sentences. Definitions are provided for the notions of announcement and presupposition. those definitions are acceptable to every kind of sentence, either declarative and non-declarative. A defining attribute of non-declarative sentences is that in basic terms strongly intensional operators can follow to them to shape complicated sentences. it truly is proven that this estate of non-declaratives means that such sentences shouldn't have declarations. a specific case of the relation among questions and conditionals is studied in additional aspect.

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B) I want you to close the door. (c) He wishes you to close the door. Here again, the only verbs which can take 'direct' imperatives as complements are normally opaque verbs like to wish, to want, to desire. When such a direct imperative is embedded in one of these verbs, the illocutionary force of the order or command is preserved, which means that this force, according to our definition, is presupposed. 34 NON-DECLARATIVE SENTENCES Finally, there is another class of non-declarative sentences which behave in a similar way.

The two following sentences always have the same truth-value when their noun phrases refer to the same person: (68) (69) He ordered you to meet the president. He ordered you to meet my neighbor. e. sentences con­ taining a normally opaque operator, need not have a first person subject or be in the present tense. Moreover, they can even have an 'indirect human subject', 40 NON-DECLARATIVE SENTENCES as in (70) or (71): (70) (71) It seems that Bill has left It is well-known that linguistics does not exist.

For instance, the deictic adverb now roughly indicates the moment at which the speaker says "now" (or utters the simple 'non-meta­ linguistic' sentence containing the adverb now). An interesting question then arises: Does every grammatical category contain deictic elements? And more specifically: are there any deictic verbs? A deictic verb V, by analogy with deictic pronouns or deictic adverbs, is a verb V which expresses an action per­ formed when the speaker says I V(x), where x is the appropriate first person present tense marker.

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