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By Simon Richards, Steve Potts, Graham Elliott, Michael Bergstrom, Michael Bamber

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Extra info for Network Protection and Application Guide: Protective Replays, Measurement and Control

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Which interacts with that of the rotor, resulting in a distortion of flux across the pole face. 2(a) the tendency is to weaken the flux at the leading edge or distort the field in a manner equivalent to a shift against the direction of rotation. If the power factor is reduced to zero lagging, the current in the stator reaches its maximum 90° after the voltage. f. is acting in direct opposition to the field. f. f. f. arising from current flowing in the stator is known as ‘armature reaction’. Generators with diesel engine drivers are invariably of four or more pole design, to match the running speed of the driver without using a gearbox.

2] Equivalent Circuits I. Frank M. Starr, Proc. E. Vol. 51. 1932, pp. 287-298. 3-14 © 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid. Chapter 3˜Fundamental Theory © 2011 Alstom Grid. Single copies of this document may be filed or printed for personal non-commercial use and must include this copyright notice but may not be copied or displayed for commercial purposes without the prior written permission of Alstom Grid.

1 u MVAb1 ¨© kVb 2 ¸¹ 2 where: x suffix b1 denotes the value to the original base x suffix b2 denotes the value to new base The choice of impedance notation depends upon the complexity of the system, plant impedance notation and the nature of the system calculations envisaged. If the system is relatively simple and contains mainly transmission line data, given in ohms, then the ohmic method can be adopted with advantage. However, the per unit method of impedance notation is the most common for general system studies since: x impedances are the same referred to either side of a transformer if the ratio of base voltages on the two sides of a transformer is equal to the transformer turns ratio x confusion caused by the introduction of powers of 100 in percentage calculation is avoided x by a suitable choice of bases, the magnitudes of the data and results are kept within a predictable range, and hence errors in data and computations are easier to spot Most power system studies are carried out using software in per unit quantities.

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