By Tom Chodor
Read Online or Download Neoliberal Hegemony and the Pink Tide in Latin America: Breaking Up With TINA? PDF
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Additional info for Neoliberal Hegemony and the Pink Tide in Latin America: Breaking Up With TINA?
Accordingly, bourgeois class power was embedded in what Gramsci referred to as the ‘integral state,’ that is, the ‘entire complex of theoretical and practical activity with which the ruling class not only justifies and maintains its dominance but manages to win the active consent of those over whom it rules’ (Gramsci 1971: 244). The integral state encompassed both the state proper, with its coercive means of rule as a last resort, and civil society, where consent predominated. Together, they formed one totality: a ‘hegemony protected by the armour of coercion’ (Gramsci 1971: 263).
Consequently, there can be no universal or predetermined notions of human nature, nor can there be universal iron laws of history derived from such nature. Rather, since the circumstances under which humans socially interact with nature are always changing as a result of their own productive activity, both their human nature and the world which they create can only be deducted through historical analysis. From this perspective, therefore, if humans act as egotistic self-interested individuals, this is not a consequence of some innate and ahistorical human nature but rather the result of a specific social organisation of production which has been historically constructed.
While subjecting the working class to a renewed discipline under a post-Fordist ‘flexible-accumulation’ regime, this historic bloc has also increasingly shaped the consciousness of workers and others in favour of the common sense of individualistic consumerism and consumption that enables an ideological project underpinned by the neoliberal ideological exaltation of the virtues of the free market, free trade, and liberal individualism. This social vision, propagated by neoliberal organic intellectuals operating in the nascent global civil society, has sought to secure consent for the neoliberal world order.
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