Download Natural History of San Francisco Bay (California Natural by Ariel Rubissow Okamoto, Kathleen M. Wong PDF

By Ariel Rubissow Okamoto, Kathleen M. Wong

This entire primer on San Francisco Bay is a multifaceted exploration of a unprecedented, and remarkably resilient, physique of water. Bustling with oil tankers, laced with pollution, and crowded with forty-six towns, the bay continues to be domestic to fit eelgrass beds, younger Dungeness crabs and sharks, and thousands of waterbirds. Written in an unique kind for a large viewers, Natural background of San Francisco Bay delves into an array of subject matters together with fish and natural world, ocean and weather cycles, endangered and invasive species, and the trail from industrialization to environmental recovery. greater than sixty scientists, activists, and source managers proportion their perspectives and describe their work—tracing mercury throughout the aquatic atmosphere, discovering how you can convert salt ponds again to tidal wetlands, looking forward to the repercussions of weather switch, and extra. totally illustrated and filled with tales, prices, and proof, the consultant additionally tells how San Francisco Bay sparked an environmental move that now reaches around the state.

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Additional resources for Natural History of San Francisco Bay (California Natural History Guides, Volume 102)

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The lake swelled and shrank with the ice ages, but eventually it broke through the coastal hills at 15,000 years ago End of last Ice Age—sea level approximately 400 feet below present level; rivers not shown 10,000 years ago Formation of Farallon Islands and intrusion into the “Golden Gate” 125 years ago Landward edge of undiked tidal marsh Today Includes changes due to hydraulic mining sediment deposition, land reclamation, and filling of wetland areas 5,000 years ago Formation of Bay and Delta Basins Figure 1.

This phenomenon gives rise to the fog so characteristic of Bay Area summers, as evaporation from the ocean condenses above cold, upwelled waters. The higher pressure of this cold air mass pushes a river of fog through the Golden Gate and other Coast Range gaps toward the warmer, lower pressure region of the Central Valley. As air over the Central Valley cools, marine air retreats, returning hot weather to the region again in a repeating cycle. When fall arrives, shorter days prevent Central Valley temperatures from rising to summertime peaks.

The rivers—two large ones and nearly a dozen tributaries—deliver most of the fresh water in the estuary. These rivers, in turn, gather their water from the runoff of rain and the melting of snow into creeks, streams, drains, and culverts from a watershed that encompasses 40 percent of the state of California. Nearly half the land area of the state drains into San Francisco Bay. The drainage itself is significant. Between 1921 and 1990, flows into the bay from upstream ranged from six million acre feet (maf) to more than 69 maf, depending on whether California was experiencing drought or deluge, and on how much was diverted for human use.

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