Download Nanostructures and Quantum Effects: Proceedings of the JRDC by Prof. H. Sakaki, Dr. H. Noge (auth.) PDF

By Prof. H. Sakaki, Dr. H. Noge (auth.)

Nanostructures and Quantum Effects records the latest advancements within the box of quantum results in semiconductor nanostructures resembling quantum wires and containers. Interrelated issues reminiscent of quantum interference, low-dimensional electron delivery, single-electron and microcavity results, electron holography, and quantum measurements including the latest development in epitaxial progress of nanostructures and the manipulation of atoms utilizing STM-related methods are covered.

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Additional info for Nanostructures and Quantum Effects: Proceedings of the JRDC International Symposium, Tsukuba, Japan, November 17–18, 1993

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1. Introduction Over the last two decades, a remarkable progress has been made in the study of semiconductor nanostrutures. In particular, the two-dimensional electron gas (20EG) confined in quantum wells (QWs) and interfacial inversion layers with the typical thickness of lOnm has been extensively studied because of its importance in the physics of low-dimensional electron systems and also in the development of high-performance devices, such as microwave transistors, the Stark modulators and low-threshold semiconductor lasers.

The width of the energy distribution ofthe field emitted electrons has been reported to be between 200 and 300 meV [9]. One way to achieve a better monochromatic electron beam is by depositing Cs atoms onto ultrasharp tungsten tips, which leads to a width of the energy distribution of less than 100 meV [10]. This reduction in energy spread is attributed to a decrease of the work function associated with the alkali atom decoration of the tip apex. In view of the tunneling process of electrons, the atomic-sized termination of the tip itself constitutes an interesting physical system inasmuch as electron emission into the vacuum takes place at a constriction comparable to the wavelength of the electrons [11, 12].

Likharev, IBM J. Res. Develop. 32, 144 (1988). [2] A. Shimizu, Phys. Rev. A43, 3819 (1991); A. Shimizu (unpublished). [3] A. Shimizu, K. Fujii, M. Okuda and M. Yamanishi, Phys. Rev. B42, 9248 (1990). S. C. P. Tooley, Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, ed. by H. 2. G. Unruh, Phys. Rev. B. M. , Rev. Mod. Phys. J. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. A28, 2065 (1983); N. A. Haus, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A32, 2287 (1985). J. Glauber and M. Lewnstein, Phys. Rev. A43, 467 (1991), and references therein.

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