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By Alice C. Harris

A number of (or prolonged) exponence is the prevalence of a number of realizations of a unmarried morphosemantic characteristic, package of good points, or derivational type inside of a notice. This publication presents info and course to the dialogue of ME, which has long past in a number of instructions and suffers from loss of proof. Alice Harris addresses the query of why ME is of curiosity to linguists and lines the dialogue of this idea within the linguistic literature. The 4 most typically encountered sorts of ME are characterised, with copious examples from a wide number of languages; those forms shape the foundation for dialogue of the processing of ME, the purchase of ME, the old improvement of ME, and research of ME. The ebook addresses one of the most vital questions related to ME, together with why it exists at all.

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In the southern dialect, -go is used instead of -ko after a root ending in a vowel. In the northern dialect, -ko may optionally become -ho. The pluperfect stem is formed from the perfect by the addition of -ko or -ho in the north or -go in the south to the perfect stem. Thus we find the pluperfect stem ǧóm-ko-ko, ǧóm-ko-ho, or ǧóm-ko-go. 8 These may be treated in a variety of ways. One possibility for all of them is to treat the first of the semantically similar affixes as the formant of a stem, which is then the base of further derivation or inflection, as suggested for Dongolese Nubian by Armbruster.

Introduction Although Kiparsky (1982: 6) lists some earlier sources, for many generative ­linguists Aronoff (1976) presents the first discussion of blocking. Kiparsky seems to be the first to discuss it in terms of multiple exponence (ME), though he does not use that term. As we saw in Chapter 1, Kiparsky notes that the existence of oxen blocks *oxes, and that kept blocks *keeped. The nonexistent forms, he says quite reasonably, are blocked by the obligatoriness of morphological rules. The lexeme ox, if [+plural], obligatorily undergoes a specific rule, (1), which adds -en, producing oxen and ­preventing the application of the general rule, (2), which would assign -s.

Morphological haplology would prevent some kinds of ME, and thus we must assume that it is not important (not highly ranked) in languages that have ME.  CONCLUSION In this section we have defined ME (in (11)) and refined the definition and illustrated its application by comparing ME with a series of similar or related phenomena. We saw that neither multiple occurrences of a feature nor multiple realizations that result in a meaning different from that of a single realization is ME. I showed that ME is not the same as redundancy of morphs.

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