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By Roger G. Burns

The hot variation of this landmark quantity takes into consideration the colossal quantity of recent spectral information on minerals, and describes a number of functions of crystal box conception to the earth and planetary sciences. a different viewpoint of the second one version is that it highlights the houses of minerals that lead them to compounds of curiosity to reliable nation chemists and physicists.

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Additional info for Mineralogical Applications of Crystal Field Theory, Second edition (Cambridge Topics in Mineral Physics and Chemistry)

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Approx. , triangular dodecahedral site of garnet). distorted coordination polyhedra induce cation ordering in many mineral structures. If there is a variety of sites available to a cation during mineral crystallization, the cation will favour that site which accommodates it best and bestows greatest electronic stability. 7). Second, unusual cation valences may be stabilized in distorted sites. Examples including Cr2+ in lunar olivines, Ti3+ in some pyroxenes found in carbonaceous chondrites and mare basalts from the Moon, and Mn3+ in the epidote and andalusite structures.

7) when cations, ligands, and metal-ligand distances are identical in the two coordinations. The implication of the negative sign in eq. 7) is that the relative stabilities of the two groups of d orbitals are reversed in the two coordinations. Thus, the dz2 and dx2_y2 orbitals are less stable in octahedral coordination but are the more stable group in tetrahedral coordination relative to the d^, dyz and d^ orbitals. 2 Cubic and dodecahedral coordinations In body-centred cubic coordination, the eight ligands surrounding a transition metal ion lie at the vertices of a cube (cf.

2A0, or 20,880 cm"1. 9 kJ/(g. ion) as the CFSE of Cr3+ in aqueous solution. ion). ion). 3). 5). Among divalent cations, Ni2+ has the highest CFSE. 5). The relatively high CFSE values for Cr3+, Co3+ and Ni2+ contrast to the zero CFSE's of Mn2+ and Fe3+ resulting from their unique highspin 3d5 configurations. Cations with zero 3d electrons (for example, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sc3+, Ti4+) and ten 3d electrons (for example, Cu1+, Zn2+, Ga3+, Ge4+) also have zero CFSE. Such differences of relative CFSE's profoundly influence the The Jahn-Teller effect 33 crystal chemical and geochemical properties of the cations, and are highlighted in later chapters.

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