By S.Y. Lin, C.W. Dence
The structural complexity of lignin has continuously challenged the ingenuity of researchers to strengthen appropriate tools for its characterization sooner than and following a large choice of chemical, organic, and actual remedies. supplied this is an up to date compilation of lignin technique. Theoretical history and functional approaches are mixed and - each time attainable - a approach is gifted in adequate aspect to allow the reader to accomplish the research exclusively by means of following the step by step description. the variety of use of a mode, its merits and barriers are mentioned. in addition, regular analytical facts are proven and in comparison with effects received from different tools. The publication serves the necessity of researchers and different pros in academia, the pulp and paper and allied industries. it's rather worthy additionally to these without past history in or event with lignin or lignocellulosics.
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Extra resources for Methods in Lignin Chemistry (Springer Series in Wood Science)
6-Amino-3-nitro-2-picoline yields the 5-chloro derivative (99 Bromo derivatives of 2-aminopyridine were first obtained as byproducts from the Hofmann reaction of 2-picolinamide and potassium hyprobromite ( 5 4 ) . T h e 2-aminopyridine initially formed was probably brominated by excess hypobromite. T h e reported melting points indicate that the 5-bromo and 3,5-dibromo derivatives of 2aminopyridine were present. 69). Extraction of the reaction product with petroleum ether removes the more soluble dibromo compound.
TVitli two moles of nitric acid in sulfuric acid at 85-90’, 4-nitramino-3-nitropyridine is obtained. This compound is also formed by the nitration of 4-nitraminopyridine, but not from 4amino-3-nitropyridine. Sitration a t 170-75” gives 4-amino-5,5-dinitropyridine (388). 3-Aminopyridine forms an N-nitro derivative, but attempted rearrangement in warm sulfuric acid results in decomposition to 3pyridinol (400). Treatment of 3-aminopyridine nitrate with fluorosulfonic acid or liquid hydrogen fluoride gave very low yields of mononitro derivatives of undetermined structure (33).
Warming the nitramino derivative in sulfuric acid failed to effect a rearrangement of the nitro group (398). 2-Methylaminopyridine yields an N-nitro derivative, which rearranges in sulfuric acid to the 3-nitro and 5-nitro derivatives in a ratio of 1: 10. A small amount of N-nitroso-2-methylaminopyridine was also formed (376). 2-Dimethylaminopyridine, which cannot form a nitramino derivative, nevertheless nitrated in high yield to a mixture of the 3- and 5-nitro derivatives in a ratio of 1:9 (317,319).
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