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By Susan J. Pharr, Ellis S. Krauss

Japan is likely one of the such a lot media-saturated societies on the earth. The circulations of its "big 5" nationwide newspapers dwarf these of any significant American newspaper. NHK, its public carrier broadcasting service provider, is moment simply to the BBC in dimension. And it has an entire diversity of industrial tv stations, high-brow and low-brow magazines (from largely learn highbrow journals to the ever-present manga, or grownup comedian books), and a wide antimainstream media and mini-media. eastern elites, surveys exhibit, cost the mass media because the such a lot influential team in jap society. yet what function do they play in political lifestyles? Whose pursuits do the media serve? As Japan's critics frequently carry, are they usually servants of the nation? Or are they watchdogs on behalf of the general public, because the media themselves declare and as advised via their position in uncovering overdue eighties and early nineties political scandals and in triggering political switch in the summertime of 1993? And what results do the media have at the political views and behaviour of standard eastern humans? those questions, crucial for studying the media's position in any commercial society, are the focal point of this choice of essays through best political scientists, sociologists, social psychologists, and newshounds. Japan's special kisha (press) membership method, its robust media company agencies, the makes use of of the media via Japan's wily bureaucrats, and the function of the media in every little thing from political scandals to shaping public opinion, are one of many matters of this insightful and provocative booklet.

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31 This more recent work offers the basis for a view of the media in modern societies as trickster in a new guise. I argue that such a conceptualization captures the duality and seemingly contradictory nature of the media’s various roles and thus clarifies the media’s relation, symbolically speaking, to society and the state. book Page 26 Thursday, November 15, 2001 3:17 PM 26 Susan J. Pharr work of politics, the rules that govern them, the authorities who preside over them, and the policies that they make and carry out.

14, 23. 15. –Japan Communication Gap and the Role of TV News,” paper presented at the Twentieth Anniversary International Symposium on Communication between Diverse Cultures through Broadcasting, Tokyo, June 1994, p. 90. S. data, no anchors expressed personal opinions. 16. Curtis, Japanese Way of Politics, p. 167. 17. New York Times, 18 July 1993, p. 8. 18. See this volume, chapter 12, for more discussion of this view. 19. See Richard H. : Princeton University Press, 1983), pp. , Harvard University, May 1985.

The media, after all, include a wide range of actors in a variety of relationships to institutions, so it is not surprising that collectively they adopt no single consistent stance in relation to state and society. Critics of Japan today point to the press club system, the single-conglomerate ownership of both newspapers and television stations, the powerful role of the Japan Newspaper Publishers and Editors Association, and a recent historical legacy of state control of the media to buttress a view of the Japanese media as subservient to the powers that be.

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