By Benoît Godin
How will we objectively degree medical actions? what quantity of financial actions should still a society commit to analyze and improvement? How can public-sector and private-sector study most sensible be directed to accomplish social pursuits? Governments and researchers from business nations were measuring technology and know-how for greater than 80 years. This publication offers the 1st accomplished account of the makes an attempt to degree technology and expertise actions in Western nations and the successes and shortcomings of statistical platforms. Godin courses readers throughout the ancient moments that ended in the advance of data on technology and know-how and likewise examines the socio-political dynamics at the back of social size. This enlightening account can be of curiosity to scholars and lecturers investigating technological know-how size in addition to coverage makers operating during this burgeoning box.
Read or Download Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology: 1920 to the Present (Routledge Studies in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine) PDF
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Extra resources for Measurement and Statistics on Science and Technology: 1920 to the Present (Routledge Studies in the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine)
17. Measuring Once concepts are defined and categories constructed, usually concurrently, the measurement instrument has to be developed. When S&T measurement began, statisticians used existing data sources not specifically designed for the task. For example, industrial laboratory repertories were the first sources—and remain the basis for conducting surveys. Similarly, proxies often supplanted direct measurement: for decades, innovation was measured by R&D and patents, for example. Dedicated surveys considerably improved on measurements from the 1930s to 1940s.
Steel, New York: Athenaeum House, p. 80. Introduction 11 participants, and created an electronic network allowing them to exchange views on the book in progress, and on the working papers that form its basis. I sincerely thank the 21 people who assisted with this project: K. Arnow, J. Bond, H. Brooks, J. Dryden, C. Falk, C. Freeman, D. Gass, P. Hemily, A. King, B. Martin, G. McColm, G. Muzart, K. Pavitt, I. Perry, A. Seymour, G. Sirilli, H. Stead, G. Westholm, A. Wycoff, and A. Young. I owe a particular debt to Jean-Jacques Salomon for reading the chapters as they were produced, and for providing the inside story on OECD science policy.
13 But over time, every country joined the club. In measuring S&T activities, monetary expenditures became the norm at the OECD—although statistics on human resources were often said to be more accurate. And when trying to assess the output and impacts (or outcomes) of S&T, statisticians chose to measure the economic output and impacts. By the end of Part I, it should become clear that choices made by statisticians on labeling, defining, categorizing, and measuring S&T intimately meshed with questions of methodology, politics, and ideology.
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