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By Michel Meyer

In keeping with the normal view, that means offers itself less than the shape of a few type of identification. to provide the that means of a sentence quantities to being in a position to generating a few replacement in keeping with the identification of the phrases of the sentence. Is then the which means of a ebook, or of any textual content, the ability of rewriting it? rather than protecting a double-standard conception of that means, one for sentences and one other for texts, that may enable for an ad hoc hole, the writer offers a unified perception, referred to as the query view of language he has built, referred to as problematology. He pursues a scientific research of wondering in literature and indicates how wondering makes the certainty procedure attainable.

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Extra resources for Meaning and Reading: A Philosophical Essay on Language and Literature

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Is it always so, and is reference an es­ sential property of language, let alone of literature? If not, when is Frege's reference theory acceptable and when is it not? The answer to the last question can only be meta-Fregean since it delimits the domain in which Frege's theory applies. It pushes us toward a more integrated framework of thought lying out­ side the realm of the classical reference theory. Can we spell out a more general view of which Frege's would be a particular instance? At least, we should try to suggest it here and sketch some of its most general outlines.

But propositions can refer to other proposi­ tions, can mention them, and, in turn, can be mentioned by other propositions. The postulate of a hierarchy of types was erected by Russell in order to enable the language analyst to establish a difference between names standing for pro­ positions, so to speak, and names standing for objects (as names all should in the last analysis, according to the empiricist view of Russell's axiom of reductibility). This axiom seems useless in mathematics and even seemed theo­ retically absurd to Gödel as an exigency of language.

He said that names that are logically entitled to be called names must be referential, and that a name must TOWARD AN INTEGRATED THEORY OF MEANING 35 have a reference if it has a sense. But propositions can refer to other proposi­ tions, can mention them, and, in turn, can be mentioned by other propositions. The postulate of a hierarchy of types was erected by Russell in order to enable the language analyst to establish a difference between names standing for pro­ positions, so to speak, and names standing for objects (as names all should in the last analysis, according to the empiricist view of Russell's axiom of reductibility).

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