By Gudrun Buhnemann
Lately maṇḍalas have attracted a lot curiosity between a much wider public. the focus of such curiosity has been directed towards Tibetan maṇḍalas, specimens of that have been integrated in different courses. yet maṇḍalas are discovered throughout a large spectrum of South Asian spiritual traditions, together with these of the Hindus and Jains. Hindu maṇḍalas and yantras have infrequently been researched. This ebook makes an attempt to fill this hole through clarifying very important facets of maṇḍalas and yantras in particular Hindu traditions via investigations by way of popular experts within the box
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Extra resources for Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions
4 6 6 - 4 6 7 obv. 27 S ee R h o d e s /G a b r is c h / t della Rocchctta 1989, Plate 2 2 , nos. , 4 4 4 rev. 28 S e e R h o d e s / G a b r i s c h / f della R o cch ctta 1989, Plate 2 1 , no. , Plate 2 2 , nos. , Plate 35, no. 95 3 rev. M A N D A L A , Y ANTRA A N D CAKRA 23 near thresholds, on roads or in public places. 29 A pattern o f nine lotuses arranged in groups o f three placed one above the other appears in several im portant mandalas. T hese in clude the Pancaratra navapadm am andala (see C olour Plate 15), the Saiva navanabhamandala (Colour Plate 18) and several versions o f the Buddhist vajradhatumandala,30 In the context o f specific mandalas and yantras, different inter pretations o f the lotus design and the lotus petals are given.
1 See T o rz so k , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 0 9 for a d escription o f such use o f m a n d a la s in early Saiva Tantras. M ANDALA, YANTRA AND CAKRA 15 o f the m andala its m ost elevated part, w hich could be taken to presuppose the concept o f three-dim ensionality. Three-dim ensional yantras are not uncom m on in the Hindu traditions, and are described below in section 2 . 1. D ifferent theological interpretations have been applied to m a n dalas, the structural parts and deities being correlated with doctrines o f different systems.
24 G U D RU N BU! IN IiM A N N Pancaratra texts identify the mandala with the deity ’s body and its constituent parts with the deity’s body parts. Thus the Satvata-Samhita (Rastelli, p. 139) takes the lotus to represent the d eity ’s intellect (dhi = buddhi). The Visnu-Samhita provides yet another interpreta tion o f the lotus, equating it with the deity’s heart, The central lotuses in mandalas or yantras often have triangles and h e x a g ra m s inscribed in their pericarps. In a tw o -d im e n s io n a l structure, the lotuses are usually surrounded by a square enclosure, often termed a seat or throne (plilui), adjacent to which may be a corridor or passage (vlthl) for circumambulation (prndnksina).
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