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This reference compiles the most up-tp-date technical and organic info to be had to survey the state-of-science within the care and administration of sufferers with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, COPD, and different kinds of lung disease-tracking the initiation and development of methods that reason airway obstruction, the biologic and physiological abnormalities that symbolize COPD, and the aptitude reversibility of the inflammatory reaction in COPD for greater sufferer analysis and therapy.
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Extra info for Lung Development and Regeneration (Lung Biology in Health and Disease)
The respiratory units of the chronically ventilated preterm baboons were described as large simpliﬁed distal saccules, with walls that contained increased numbers of mesenchymal and mononuclear cells, and focal deposition of elastin and collagen ﬁbers. Subsequent studies showed decreased pulmonary expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and two VEGF receptors (Flt-1 and TIE1) in the baboons with BPD, which may help to explain their reduced capillary volume density (38). A recent report also demonstrated reduced abundance of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), coupled with decreased NOS activity in the lungs of these baboons.
33. Hislop A, Wigglesworth J, Desai R. Alveolar development in the human fetus and infant. Early Hum Dev 1986; 13:1–11. 34. Broman I. Zur kenntnis der lungenentwicklung. Anat Anz Eng 1923; 57:83–96. 35. Boyden E. Notes on the development of the lung in infancy and early childhood. Am J Anat 1967; 121:749–761. 36. Boyden E. The pattern of the terminal air spaces in a premature infant of 30-32 weeks that lived nineteen and a quarter hours. Am J Anat 1969; 126:31–40. 37. Boyden E. The structure of the pulmonary acinus in a child of six years and eight months.
Other less potent diuretics, speciﬁcally thiazides and spironolactone, have BPD in Postsurfactant Era 33 been shown to improve pulmonary function and gas exchange in infants with BPD without apparent toxicity. G. Retinol Treatment Retinoids have been shown to have a profound inﬂuence on lung development and healing of lung injury in experimental animals (135–143). Because plasma concentrations of retinol are low in very premature infants compared to infants born at term, and particularly low in infants who acquire BPD (144,145), clinical trials of retinol treatment have been conducted in very premature infants with low plasma concentrations of retinol to determine the eﬀects of retinol supplementation on the incidence of BPD (146,147).
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