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These results are sometimes taken as evidence that encoding processes are therefore intact in elderly individuals and amnesic patients, and that the observed decrements are failures of retrieval. But encoding processes may be somewhat impaired in older people and amnesics; they might be sufficient to support later indirect tests, but insufficient to support later direct tests. Semantic Memory Semantic memory refers to a person’s learned knowledge of facts and concepts. Typically we are unaware of where and when we first learned that Paris is the capital of France, the meaning of rhinoceros, and that 7 x 9 = 63; the notion of semantic memory thus stands in contrast to episodic memory, where details of time and place are crucial.

You would like to predict the outcomes of treating new patients. In statistics, this is known as a regression or a classification problem (for the respective cases of quanti- Neurons 1, 2, . . n provide input to neuron B. tative and categorical outcomes). Solving it requires finding a rule (mathematically, a function) that best fits the data in the training set (where ‘‘best’’ is precisely defined in some way). The resulting rule is then used to provide the desired predictions. Many methods for solving these problems are formulated as learning algorithms.

Marilyn S. Albert HUMAN DISEASE AND THE GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ANIMAL MODELS Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represents a great challenge for science and medicine because of its prevalence, cost, lack of reliable treatments, and often devastating impact on individuals and caregivers. This ageassociated chronic illness involves genetic risk factors, a well-defined clinical syndrome with a progressive course, evidence of dysfunction and/or death of populations of neurons, pathological and biochemical abnormalities, and intra- or extra-cellular protein aggregates (Price, Tanzi, Borchelt, and Sisodia, 1998).

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